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Amadeo I
King of Spain
(1845-90)


Other names: Amedeo Ferdinando Maria[1]

Other Titles and Honours

1st Duca d'Aosta, 1845-90†[1]
Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Spain)[1]
Knight of the Order St Benedict of Avis (Portugal)[1]
Knight of the Military Order of Christ (Portugal)[1]
Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle (Prussia)[1]
Knight of the Order of St Hubert (Bavaria)[1]
Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece (Austria)[1]
Knight of the Order of the Garter (Great Britain)[1]
Knight of the Legion of Honour (France)[1]
Medal of Military Valour, gold, 1866 (Italy)[1]
Order of the Order of the Crown of Italy[1]
Knight of the Order of of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)[1]
Knight of the Order of the Holy Annunciation (Italy)[1]

Positions Held

Inspector general of the cavalry, 1887[1]
Inspector general of the army, 1873[1]
Lieutenant colonel, 1873[1]
Vice admiral, 1868[1]
Major general, 1866[1]
Colonel, 1863[1]
Lieutenant colonel, 1861[1]
Major, 1860[1]
Infantry captain, 1859[1]

Main Events

Entering the army as captain in 1859, Amadeo fought through the campaign of 1866 with the rank of major-general, leading his brigade into action at Custozza and being wounded at Monte Torre. He left Italy in 1870 to ascend the Spanish throne, his reluctance to accept the invitation of the Cortes having been overridden by the Italian cabinet. He was proclaimed king of Spain by the Cortes in November that year, but, before he could arrive at Madrid, Marshal Prim, chief promoter of his candidature, was assassinated. Undeterred by rumours of a plot against his own life, Amadeo entered Madrid alone, riding at some distance from his suite to the church where Marshal Prim's body lay in state. His efforts as constitutional king were paralysed by the rivalry between the various Spanish factions, but with the approval of his father he rejected all idea of a coup d'état. Though warned of a plot against his life in 1872, he refused to take precautions, and, while returning from Buen Retiro to Madrid in company with the queen, was repeatedly shot at in Via Avenal. The royal carriage was struck by several revolver and rifle bullets, the horses wounded, but its occupants escaped unhurt. A period of calm followed the outrage. In 1873, however, Amadeo, abandoned by his partisans and attacked more fiercely than ever by his opponents, signed his abdication. Upon returning to Italy he was cordially welcomed and reinstated in his former position.[2] He afterwards received additional posts in the military, and was made president of the committee for Turin at the 1878 Exposition Universelle in Paris.[1]

Place of birth: Turin[1]
Place of first marriage: Chapel of the royal palace, Turin[1]
Place of second marriage: Cathedral of Turin[1]
Place of death: Turin[1]
Place of burial: Basilica of Superga[1]
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Sources

1. Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía. Anales de la Real Academia Matritense de Heráldica y Genealogía, 2000-2001, vol. 6.

2. Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, 11th edn, vol. 1. New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica Co., 1911.
 

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