King of Italy
Other names: Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando
Other Titles and Honours
King of Sardinia, 1849-61
Titular King of Cyprus, 1849-78†
Titular King of Jerusalem, 1849-78†
Titular King of Armenia, 1849-78†
8th Principe di Carignano, 1849-78†
Titular 22nd Duca di Savoia, 1849-78†
Knight of the Garter, 1858 (England)
Victor Emmanuel early showed military ardour, and in 1848-49, displayed
great gallantry at Goito and Novara. After ascending the throne of
Sardinia in 1849, peace was concluded between Sardinia and Austria.
Perhaps the most important act of his rule was the appointment in 1852
of Cavour, his chief minister. In 1855, Sardinia joined the allies
against Russia, and a contingent of 10,000 men landed in the Crimea. At
the Congress of Paris of 1856, the Sardinian envoys urged upon the
attention of France and England the oppressive government of the states
of Italy. In 1857, diplomatic relations were broken off with Austria,
and in 1859, Austria demanded the disarmament of Sardinia. This was
refused, and the next day the Austrians crossed the Ticino. A French
army advanced to aid the Sardinians, and the Austrians were defeated at
Montebello, Magenta, and Solferino. By the Treaty of Villafranca,
Lombardy was ceded to Sardinia. In 1860 Modena, Parma, the Romagna and
Tuscany were peacefully annexed to Sardinia. Sicily and Naples were
added by Garibaldi, while Savoy and Nice were ceded to France. The papal
territories were saved from annexation only by the presence of a French
force of occupation. In 1861, Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed king of
Italy at Turin, and the capital of Italy was transferred to Florence. In
1866, the Austro-Prussian war, in which Italy took part as the ally of
Prussia, added Venetia to the Italian kingdom. In the same year
the French withdrew from Rome, but owing to an incursion by Garibaldi,
they returned. After the fall of the Empire in 1870, the French
occupation of Rome was at an end, the king entered Rome, and the
province was added to his kingdom. Victor Emmanuel reigned reigned as a
strictly constitutional monarch.
Place of birth: Turin
Place of first marriage: Stupinigi
Place of second marriage: Rome
Place of death: Rome
1. H. Montgomery-Massingberd, ed. Burke's Royal Families of the World.
Volume I: Europe & Latin America. London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd., 1977.
2. G. Oliva. I Savoia. Novecento anni di una dinastia. Milan:
Mondadori Editore S.p.A., 1998.
3. K.M. Setton, ed. A History of the Crusades, vol. 2. Wisconsin:
Princeton University of Wisconsin Press, 1969.
4. J.O. Thorne, ed. Chambers Biographical Dictionary, 2nd rev. edn.
Edinburgh; London: W. & R. Chambers, Ltd, 1923.