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Vittorio Amedeo III
King of Sardinia
(1726–
96)

Biographical

King of Sardinia 1773–96†
17th Duca di Savoia 1773–96†
Titular King of Cyprus 1773–96†
Titular King of Jerusalem 1773–96†
Titular King of Armenia 1773–96†
Principe di Piemonte, courtesy 1730–73; 1773–96†

Prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Principe di Oneglia 1773–96†
Prince de Montmélian 1773–96†
Prince de Chieri 1773–96†
Principe di Poirino 1773–96†
Principe di Dronero 1773–96†
Duc de Genevois 1773–96†
Duca di Aosta, courtesy –1730 1773–96†
Duc de Chablais 1773–96†
Duca di Monferrato 1773–96†
Duca di Piacenza, titular 1773–96†
Marchese di Saluzzo 1773–96†
Marchese di Finale 1773–96†
Marchese di Oneglia 1773–96†
Marchese di Oristano 1773–96†
Marchese di Ivrea 1773–96†
Marchese di Susa 1773–96†
Marquis de Tarantaise 1773–96†
Marchese di Marene 1773–96†
Marchese di Modane 1773–96†
Marquis de Lanslebourg 1773–96†
Marchese di Livorno Ferraris 1773–96†
Marchese di Santhià 1773–96†
Marchese d'Agliè 1773–96†
Conte di Carmagnola 1773–96†
Conte di Novara 1773–96†
Conte di Tortona 1773–96†
Conte di Bobbio 1773–96†
Comte de Nice 1773–96†
Comte de Maurienne 1773–96†
Conte di Asti 1773–96†
Conte di Tenda 1773–96†
Comte de Genevre 1773–96†
Comte de Romont 1773–96†
Conte di Goceano 1773–96†
Conte di Alessandria 1773–96†
Conte di Sant'Antioco 1773–96†
Baron de Vaud 1773–96†
Baron de Faucigny 1773–96†
Signore di Lomellina 1773–96†
Seigneur de Arbin 1773–96†
Seigneur de Francin 1773–96†
Signore di Pinerolo 1773–96†
Signore di Vercelli 1773–96†
Signore di Valsesia 1773–96†
Patrician of Venice 1773–96†
Patrician of Ferrara 1773–96†

Vittorio Amedeo was educated under the guidance of the Marquis de Vicardel di Fleury, and was later shielded from public life and state affairs by his father due to his incapable and extravagant nature, and lack of political maturity. Because of this, he felt distrust towards those in the service of his father and sought advisors and confidants elsewhere, one of these being Giuseppe Baretti who assisted him in ascending the throne. As king, he turned his attention to the army, to fortifying his kingdom's borders, and improving the port of Nice, but he did little to reform other sectors that would affect the privileged class. He did support cultural fields, supporting the restoration of art schools, the academy of sciences, and built an astronomical observatory. His foreign policy was virtually at a standstill due to the Franco-Austrian alliance, but he was clearly pro-France, cementing his relationship with that country through marriage alliances. On the 20th of January 1775, a secret agreement was signed by the two countries guaranteeing the defence of the state of Savoy. He improved relations with Prussia, but those with Venice remained poor. Austria was considered a menace. However, the French Revolution ended any hopes of peace. From 1789, many exiles from France sought refuge at Piedmont, but a sense of uneasiness was felt in Piedmont as the sentiments of revolution spread from beyond the alps, and the immigration of supporters of the Revolution from Savoy to France increased. Pressured by his family ties to Louis XVI, the French immigrants, the Church and the British ministers, Victor Emmanuel began to suppress any sympathy to the Revolution. Writers were kept under vigilance, the Masonic lodge of Chambéry was closed in 1790, and he withdrew his ambassador, the Marquis de Cordon, from Paris. He lacked skills in foreign diplomacy, and attempts to form a federative league between the Italian states failed. Dumouriez's proposals for a Franco-Sardinian alliance against Austria came to nothing, and then relations with France deteriorated to the point where he had to request military aid from Austria at the cost of benefits that Savoy enjoyed as a member of the European coalition. In 1792 France invaded Savoy and annexed the state, along with Nice. Bonaparte took command of the army of Italy in the campaign of 1796, and despite aid from Austria, and Vittorio Emanuele's continuous efforts, Sardinia was defeated. He called for a ceasefire by April 1796, and the armistice of Cherasco was effected. In May, the Peace of Paris was signed which gave Savoy and Nice to France, with French troops to be stationed at Piedmont. These disastrous events took a toll on Vittorio Emanuele's health, and five months later, he was dead.

Place of birth: Turin
Place of marriage: Oulx
Place of death: Montcalieri
Place of burial: Basilica of Superga

Son of King Carlo Emanuele III of Sardinia and Polyxena, Landgravine of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg. He married the Infanta María Antonieta of Spain in 1750 and had issue.



 

Sources

1.
Società Genealogica Italiana. Enciclopedia Genealogica del Mediterraneo. 2005–2018. 
2. Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti, Vol. 35, Veg - Zyg. Milano: Ist. Giovanni Treccani, 1937.

 

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