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Emmanuel-Philibert de Savoie
10th Duc de Savoie

Other names: Ironhead, the Great


10th Duc de Savoie titular 1553–59; effective 1559–80†
Titular King of Cyprus 1553–80†
Titular King of Jerusalem 1553–80†
Titular King of Armenia 1553–80†
Principe di Piemonte 1553–80†
Titular Prince of Achaia 1553–80†
Principe di Oneglia purch 1576–80†
Duc de Chablais 1569–80†

Duca d'Aosta 1553–80†
Marchese del Maro 1575–80†
Marchese di Ivrea 1553–80†
Marchese di Susa 1553–80†
Marchese in Italia 1553–80†
Marquis de Gex 1569–80†

Marchese di Ceva
Conte d'Asti 1553–80†
Comte de Maurienne 1553–80†
Comte de Nice 1553–80†
Comte de Bresse 1553–80†
Comte de Tende 1575–80†
Comte de Romont 1553–78 dep; titular 1578–80†
Baron de Vaud 1553–80†
Baron de Gex 1569–80†
Signore di Vercelli 1553–80†
Seigneur de Bugey 1553–80†
Seigneur de Fribourg 1553–80†
Signore di Prelà 1575–80†
Signore di Pornassio 1575–80†
Signore di Pinerolo 1553–80†
Signore di Vercelli 1553–80†
Patrician of Venice (confirmed 1574)
Knight of the Order of the Garter 1556 [England]
Knight of the Golden Fleece 1546 [France]

Stadtholder of the Netherlands 1555–59
Cavalry commander 1547
General in the Imperial army 1546

Emmanuel-Philibert was one of the most renowned princes of the later Renaissance. His father, after trying in vain to remain neutral in the wars between France and the emperor Charles V, had been forced to side with the latter, whereupon his duchy was overrun with foreign soldiery and became the battlefield of the rival armies. Emmanuel took service with the emperor in 1545 and distinguished himself in Germany, France and the Low Countries. On the death of his father, he succeeded to the title, little more than an empty one, and continued in the emperor's service. Having been refused the command of the imperial troops in Piedmont, he tried in vain to negotiate a separate peace with France, but in 1556, France and Spain concluded a five years' truce, by which each was to retain what it then occupied. This would have been the end of Savoy, but within a year the two powers were again at war. The chief events of the campaign were the successful resistance of Cuneo, held for the duke by Count Luserna, and the victory of St Quentin in 1557, won by Emmanuel Philibert himself against the French. At last in 1558 the powers agreed to an armistice, and in 1559 the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was made, by which Emmanuel regained his duchy, but on onerous terms, for France was to occupy several Piedmontese fortresses, including Turin and Pinerolo, for not more than three years, and a marriage was arranged between the duke and Margaret, duchess of Berry, sister of the French king; while Spain was to garrison Asti and Vercelli (afterwards exchanged for Santhia) until France evacuated the above-mentioned fortresses.

The duke's marriage took place in Paris a few months later, and after the French evacuation, he re-entered his dominions amidst the rejoicing of the people. The condition of Piedmont at that time was deplorable due to wars, the exactions and devastations of the foreign soldiery, and religious antagonism between Catholics and Protestants had wrought terrible havoc. There was no army, the administration was chaotic, and the finances were in a hopeless state. The duke set to work to put his house in order, and inaugurated a series of useful reforms, ably assisted by his minister, Niccolo Balbo. But progress was slow, and was accompanied by measures which abolished the states general, the last survival of feudal liberties. Savoy, following the tendency of the other states of Europe at that time, became thenceforth an absolute monarchy, but without that transformation the achievement of complete independence from foreign powers would have been impossible.

One of the first questions with which he had to deal was the religious difficulty. The inhabitants of the Pellice and Chisone valleys had long professed a primitive form of Christianity which the orthodox regarded as heretical, and had been subject to numerous persecutions in consequence. At the time of the Reformation, they had gone over to Protestantism, and during the wars of the 16th century the new religion made great progress in Piedmont. The duke as a devout Catholic desired to purge the state of heresy, and initiated repressive measures against the Waldenses, but after some severe and not very successful fighting, he ended by allowing them a measure of religious liberty in those valleys in 1561. At the pope's instigation, he recommenced persecution some years later, but his duchess and some German princes pleaded successfully in favour of the Protestants.

He next turned his attention to getting rid of the French garrisons. The negotiations proved long and troublesome, but in 1562, the French departed on payment of 100,000 scudi, retaining only Pinerolo and Savigliano, and Turin became the capital once more. There remained the Bernese, who had occupied some of the duke's territories in Savoy and Vaud, and in Geneva, over which he claimed certain rights. With Bern he made a compromise, regaining Gex, the Chablais, and the Genevois, on condition that Protestantism should be tolerated there, but he renounced Vaud and some other districts in 1566. Disagreements with the Valais were settled in a similar way in 1569, but the Genevans refused to recognise Savoyard suzerainty. Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganised justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.

On the death of Charles IX of France in 1574, the new king, Henry III, passed through Piedmont on his way from Poland. Emmanuel gave him a magnificent reception, and obtained from him a promise that Pinerolo and Savigliano should be evacuated, which was carried out at the end of the year. Philip of Spain was likewise induced to evacuate Asti and Santhia in 1575. Thus, after being more or less under foreign occupation for 39 years, the duchy was at last free. The duke rounded off his dominions by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia, which increased his seaboard, and the last years of his life were spent in fruitless negotiations to obtain Monferrato, held by the Gonzagas under Spanish protection, and Saluzzo, which was a French fief.

As a statesman, Emmanuel-Philibert was able, business-like and energetic, but he has been criticised for his duplicity, although in this respect he was no worse than most other European princes, whose ends were far more questionable. He was autocratic, but just and very patriotic. During his reign the duchy, which had been more than half French, became predominantly Italian. By diplomacy, which, although he was a capable and brave soldier, he preferred to war, he succeeded in freeing his country, and converting it from a ruined and divided land into a respectable independent power of the second rank, and, after Venice, the best-governed state in Italy.

Place of birth: Chambéry
Place of marriage: Paris
Place of death: Turin
Place of burial: Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Turin

Son of Charles III de Savoie and Infanta Maria Beatriz of Portugal. He married Princesse Marguerite de France in 1559, and had issue. He also had illegitimate issue.

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