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Carlo Emanuele III
King of Sardinia
(1701–73)


Biographical

King of Sardinia 1730–73†
16th Duca di Savoia 1732–73†
Titular King of Cyprus 1732–73†
Titular King of Jerusalem 1732–73†
Titular King of Armenia 1732–73†
Principe di Masserano 1767
Principe di Piemonte, substantive 1715–1732; 1732–73†
Principe di Oneglia 1732–73†
Prince de Montmélian
Principe di Poirino
Principe di Chieri
Principe di Busca
Principe di Dronero
Duca di Piacenza 1744–45, 1746–49; titular 1749–73†
Duc de Genevois 1732–73†
Duca di Aosta, substantive 1701–15; 1732–73†
Duc de Chablais 1732–73†
Duca di Monferrato 1732–73†
Marchese di Crevacuore 1767
Marchese di Finale 1746
Marchese di Dronero 1738
Marchese in Italia 1732–73†
Marchese di Oristano 1732–73†
Marchese di Saluzzo 1732–73†
Marchese di Ivrea 1732–73†
Marchese di Susa 1732–73†
Marchese di Ceva 1732–73†
Marquis de Tarentaise
Marchese di Savona
Marchese di Marene 1732–73†
Marchese di Modane 1732–73†
Marquis de Lanslebourg 1732–73†
Conte di Carmagnola 1732–73†
Conte di Novara
Conte di Tortona
Conte di Bobbio
Comte de Nice 1732–73†
Comte de Maurienne 1732–73†
Conte di Asti 1732–73†
Comte de Tende 1732–73†
Comte de Romont 1732–73†
Conte di Goceano 1732–73†
Conte di Alessandria 1732–73†
Conte di Sant'Antioco 1732–73†
Baron de Vaud 1732–73†
Baron de Faucigny 1732–73†
Signore di Lomellina
Seigneur de Arbin
Seigneur de Francin
Signore di Pinerolo 1732–73†
Signore di Vercelli 1732–73†
Signore di Valsesia

The youngest son of Vittorio Amedeo II and Anna of France, Carlo Emanuele firstly held the title of duke of Aosta; he became prince of Piedmont on the death of his elder brother Vittorio Amedeo in 1715. His father then began to provide him with a military and political education. After his father's abdication in 1730, Carlo Emanuele strongly opposed his attempts by him to regain the throne. When the war of succession of Poland broke out, he signed the Treaty of Turin in 1733 that promised him Milan and other territories. He commanded the Franco-Piedmontese army, and between 1733 and 1734, he occupied Milan, Pavia and the main fortresses of Lombardy. The military campaign of 1734 on the Po gave him victory at Guastalla in September that year. The Peace of Vienna of 1738 forced him to withdraw from Milan, leaving him with only Novara and Tortona. At the start of the War of Austrian Succession in 1740, Charles Emmanuel sided with Austria and England with the Treaty of Worms. He was promised an annual subsidy of 200,000 pounds, and the territories of Vigevano, Oltrepò Pavese and Piacenza. He commanded of the army against the Spanish general Montemar, who advanced from Naples towards the Po; the Piedmontese occupied the Mirandola and fought at the Battle of Campo Santo. At the Alps, he drove back the Spanish, allied with France, that had invaded Savoy. Franco-Spanish attacks persisted, and eventually, Cuneo fell, despite Charles Emmanuel's efforts. In 1745, the threat to Piedmont was very serious, with Genoa joining the Franco-Spanish alliance. Alexandria was besieged after the Battle of Bassignana; Asti and Casale were occupied, Turin itself was in danger. France then made offers to Charles Emmanuel to break with Austria, but fearing French domination, he rejected the deal immediately. Instead, he vigorously organised an offensive, taking Asti, Alexandria, and with the Austrians. Marching on Novi and Genoa, hoping to take Nice, and conquered Savona. The final attempt by the Franco-Spanish to invade Turin through the Cottian Alps was repelled by the Piedmontese at the Assietta pass in July 1747. Through the Peace of Aachen of 1748, Charles Emmanuel received  Vigevano, the Oltrepò Pavese and the county of Angangolo from Austria. He lost Piacenza to his opponent, Philip of Bourbon, who was to recognise the rights of the succession of the king of Sardinia. He continued to pursue his claim to Piacenza, but was unsuccessful, except that France was made to pay the government of Turin compensation for lost income from Piacenza. Charles Emmanuel declined to participate in the Seven Years' War, and the remaining years of his reign were spent in peace, and employed in the cares of administration, in which he was ably assisted by his minister Count Bogino. This period saw significant financial, administrative, judicial reforms aimed at organising and arranging the Piedmontese state. In 1770, he published the Costituzioni Reali, a compilation of numerous edicts and decisions of the dukes of Savoy, and mainly based on the Roman and canon law; he effected the catasto or general survey of the land, in order to put the assessment of the land-tax on an equitable basis; he established special schools of artillery and mineralogy, and sent several learned men on scientific journeys; he opened new roads, excavated canals, gave new privileges to the town of Nice, in order to increase its commerce; and in 1771 he published an edict, empowering all individuals and communes to commute the feudal services to which they might be subject, for an equivalent in money, to be fixed by a court created for the purpose. He took off all the extraordinary imposts which had been put on during the long preceding wars, and yet the revenue of the state increased every year. Charles Emmanuel died at Turin, in February 1773, at 72 years of age, regretted, both by his subjects and foreigners, for his able public conduct and his unspotted private character. He left to his successor a compact and extensive territory, a thriving population, a fine army, and a full treasury.

Place of birth: Turin
Place of first marriage: Vercelli
Place of second marriage: Thorn
Place of third marriage: Turin
Place of death: Turin
Place of burial: Basilica of Superga

Son of King Vittorio Amedeo II of Sardinia and Princesse Anne Marie d'Orléans. He was married firstly in 1722 to Anna Christina, Countess Palatine of Sulzbach (Wittelsbach), secondly in 1724 to Christine of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rothernburg, and thirdly in 1737 to Princesse Elisabeth de Lorraine. He had issue


     





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