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Carlo Emanuele III
King of Sardinia
(1701–73)


Biographical

King of Sardinia 1730–73†
16th Duca di Savoia 1730–73†
Titular King of Cyprus 1730–73†
Titular King of Jerusalem 1730–73†
Titular King of Armenia 1730–73†
Principe di Masserano 1767
Principe di Piemonte, courtesy 1715–1730; 1730–73†
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Principe di Oneglia 1730–73†
Prince de Montmélian 1730–73†
Principe di Poirino 1730–73†
Principe di Chieri 1730–73†
Principe di Busca 1730–73†
Principe di Dronero 1730–73†
Duca di Piacenza 1744–45, 1746–49; titular 1749–73†
Duc de Genevois 1730–73†
Duca di Aosta, courtesy 1701–1715; 1730–73†
Duc de Chablais 1730–73†
Duc di Carignano Ivoy 1730–73†
Marchese di Crevacuore 1767
Marchese di Finale 1746
Marchese di Dronero 1738
Marchese in Italia 1730–73†
Marchese di Oristano 1730–73†
Marchese di Saluzzo 1730–73†
Marchese di Ivrea 1730–73†
Marchese di Susa 1730–73†
Marchese di Ceva 1730–73†
Marquis de Tarantaise 1730–73†
Marchese di Savona 1730–73†
Marchese di Marene 1730–73†
Marchese di Modane 1730–73†
Marquis de Lanslebourg 1730–73†
Conte di Novara 1734–73†
Conte di Tortona 1734–73†
Conte di Bobbio 1734–73†
Comte de Nice 1730–73†
Comte de Maurienne 1730–73†
Conte di Asti 1730–73†
Conte di Tenda 1730–73†
Comte de Genevre 1730–73†
Comte de Romont 1730–73†
Conte di Goceano 1730–73†
Conte di Alessandria 1730–73†
Conte di Sant'Antioco 1730–73†
Baron de Vaud 1730–73†
Baron de Faucigny 1730–73†
Signore di Lomellina 1734–73†
Seigneur de Arbin 1730–73†
Seigneur de Francin 1730–73†
Signore di Pinerolo 1730–73†
Signore di Vercelli 1730–73†
Signore di Valsesia 1730–73†
Patrician of Venice
Patrician of Ferrara

The youngest son of Vittorio Amedeo II and Anna of France, Carlo Emanuele firstly held the title of duke of Aosta; he became prince of Piedmont on the death of his elder brother Vittorio Amedeo in 1715. His father then began to provide him with a military and political education. After his father's abdication in 1730, Carlo Emanuele strongly opposed his attempts by him to regain he throne. When the war of succession of Poland broke out, he signed the Treaty of Turin in 1733 that promised him Milan and other territories. He commanded the Franco-Piedmontese army, and between 1733 and 1734, he occupied Milan, Pavia and the main fortresses of Lombardy. The military campaign of 1734 on the Po gave him victory at Guastalla in September that year. The Peace of Vienna of 1738 forced him to withdraw from Milan, leaving him with only Novara and Tortona. At the start of the War of Austrian Succession in 1740, Charles Emmanuel sided with Austria and England with the Treaty of Worms. He was promised an annual subsidy of 200,000 pounds, and the territories of Vigevano, Oltrepò Pavese and Piacenza. He commanded of the army against the Spanish general Montemar, who advanced from Naples towards the Po; the Piedmontese occupied the Mirandola and fought at the Battle of Campo Santo. At the Alps, he drove back the Spanish, allied with France, that had invaded Savoy. Franco-Spanish attacks persisted, and eventually, Cuneo fell, despite Charles Emmanuel's efforts. In 1745, the threat to Piedmont was very serious, with Genoa joining the Franco-Spanish alliance. Alexandria was besieged after the Battle of Bassignana; Asti and Casale were occupied, Turin itself was in danger. France then made offers to Charles Emmanuel to break with Austria, but fearing French domination, he rejected the deal immediately. Instead he vigorously organised an offensive, taking Asti, Alexandria, and with the Austrians. Marching on Novi and Genoa, hoping to take Nice, and conquered Savona. The final attempt by the Franco-Spanish to invade Turin through the Cottian Alps was repelled by the Piedmontese at the Assietta pass in July 1747. Through the Peace of Aachen of 1748, Charles Emmanuel received  Vigevano, the Oltrepò Pavese and the county of Angangolo from Austria. He lost Piacenza to his opponent, Philip of Bourbon, who was to recognise the rights of the succession of the king of Sardinia. He continue to pursue his claim to Piacenza, but was unsuccessful, except that France was made to pay the government of Turin compensation for lost income from Piacenza. Charles Emmanuel declined to participate in the Seven Years' War, and the remaining years of his reign were spent in peace, and employed in the cares of administration, in which he was ably assisted by his minister Count Bogino. This period saw significant financial, administrative, judicial reforms aimed at organising and arranging the Piedmontese state. In 1770 he published the Costituzioni Reali, a compilation of numerous edicts and decisions of the dukes of Savoy, and mainly based on the Roman and canon law; he effected the catasto or general survey of the land, in order to put the assessment of the land-tax on an equitable basis; he established special schools of artillery and mineralogy, and sent several learned men on scientific journeys; he opened new roads, excavated canals, gave new privileges to the town of Nice, in order to increase its commerce; and in 1771 he published an edict, empowering all individuals and communes to commute the feudal services to which they might be subject, for an equivalent in money, to be fixed by a court created for the purpose. He took off all the extraordinary imposts which had been put on during the long preceding wars, and yet the revenue of the state increased every year. Charles Emmanuel died at Turin, in February 1773, at 72 years of age, regretted, both by his subjects and foreigners, for his able public conduct and his unspotted private character. He left to his successor a compact and extensive territory, a thriving population , a fine army, and a full treasury.

Place of birth: Turin
Place of first marriage: Vercelli
Place of second marriage: Thorn
Place of third marriage: Turin
Place of death: Turin
Place of burial: Basilica of Superga

Son of King Vittorio Amedeo II of Sardinia and Princesse Anne Marie d'Orléans. He was married firstly in 1722 to Anna Christina, Countess Palatine of Sulzbach (Wittelsbach), secondly in 1724 to Christine of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rothernburg, and thirdly in 1737 to Princesse Elisabeth de Lorraine. He had issue


 
 

Sources

1.
Società Genealogica Italiana. Enciclopedia Genealogica del Mediterraneo. 2005–2018.
2. Enciclopedia italiana di scienze, lettere ed arti, vol. 9, Care - Chia - Gian. Milano: Ist. Giovanni Treccani, 1931.
3. The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, vol. XX. London: Charles Knight & Co., 1841.
 

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