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Carlo Emanuele I di Savoia
11th Duca di Savoia
(1562–1630)


Other names: the Great

Biographical

11th Duca di Savoia 1580–1630†
Titular King of Cyprus 1580–1630†
Titular King of Jerusalem 1580–1630†
Titular King of Armenia 1580–1630†
Principe di Piemonte 1580–1630†
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Titular Prince of Achaia 1580–1630†
Principe di Oneglia 1580–1620
Duca d'Aosta 1580–1630†
Marchese di Ivrea 1580–1630†
Marchese di Torino 1580–1630†
Marquis in Italy 1580–1630†
Marchese del Maro 1581–1620
Marchese di Saluzzo 1588–1630†
Marquis de Gex 1580–1601
Conte di Carmagnola 1588–1630†
Conte d'Asti 1580–1630†
Comte de Nice 1580–1630†
Comte de Bresse 1580–1601
Comte de Chablais 1580–1630†
Comte de Tende 1581–1630†
Comte de Maurienne 1580–1630†
Comte de Romont 1580–1630†
Baron de Vaud 1580–1630†
Signore di Oneglia 1581–1620
Signore di Valromey 1580–1601
Signore de Vercelli 1580–1630†
Signore di Pinerolo 1580–1630†
Seigneur de Bugey 1580-1601
Seigneur de Fribourg 1580–1630†
Signore di Prela 1581–1620
Patrician of Venice
Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece 1585 [Burgundy-France]

Charles Emmanuel continued his father's policy of profiting by the rivalry of France and Spain in order to round off and extend his dominions. His three chief objects were the conquest of Geneva, of Saluzzo and of Monferrato. He succeeded in Saluzzo wresting from France in 1588. He intervened in the French religious wars, and also fought with Bern and other Swiss cantons, and on the murder of Henry III. of France in 1580, he aspired to the French throne on the strength of the claims of his wife Catherine, sister of Henry of Navarre, afterwards King Henry IV. In 1590, he sent an expedition to Provence in the interests of the Catholic League, and followed it himself later, but the peace of 1593, by which Henry of Navarre was recognised as king of France, put an end to his ambitions. In the war between France and Spain, Charles sided with the latter, with varying success. Finally, by the peace of Lyons in 1601, he gave up all territories beyond the Rhone, but his possession of Saluzzo was confirmed. He now meditated a further enterprise against Geneva. but his attempt to capture the city by treachery and with the help of Spain (the famous escalade) in 1602 failed completely. The next few years were filled with negotiations and intrigues with Spain and France which did not lead to any particular result, but on the death in 1612 of Duke Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua, who was lord of Monferrato, Charles Emmanuel made a successful coup de main on that district. This arrayed the Venetians, Tuscany, the Empire and Spain against him, and he was obliged to relinquish his conquest. The Spaniards invaded the duchy from Lombardy, and although the duke was defeated several times, he fought bravely, gained some successes, and the terms of the peace of 1618 left him more or less in the status quo ante. We next find him aspiring to the imperial crown in 1619, but without success. In 1628 he was in alliance with Spain in the war against France. The French invaded the duchy, which, being abandoned by Spain, was overrun by their armies. The duke fought desperately, but was taken ill at Savigliano and he died. Charles Emmanuel achieved a great reputation as a statesman and warrior, and increased the prestige of Savoy, but he was too shifty and ingenious, and his schemes ended in disaster. He is said to have married Marie Rossillon secretly in 1629.

Place of birth: Rivoli
Place of first marriage: Zaragoza
Place of second marriage: Riva di Chieri
Place of death: Savigliano
Place of burial: Originally at San Domenico, then transferred to Vicoforte in 1677


Son of Emmanuel-Philibert de Savoie and Princesse Marguerite de France. He married Infanta Catalina of Spain (Habsburg) in 1585, and had issue. He also had illegitimate issue.




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