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Carlo Alberto
King of Sardinia
(1798–1849)


Other names: Carlo Alberto Amedeo

Biographical

King of Sardinia 1831–49 abd.
Titular King of Cyprus 1831–49 abd.
Titular King of Jerusalem 1831–49 abd.
Titular King of Armenia 1831–49 abd.
21st Duca di Savoia 1831–49 abd.
7th Principe di Carignano 1800–49 abd.
Principe di Piemonte 1831–49 abd.
Prince of the Holy Roman Empire
Principe di Oneglia 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Poirino 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Trino 1831–49 abd.
Prince de Montmélian 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Chieri 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Busca 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Bene 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Brà 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Crescentino 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Dronero 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Riva 1831–49 abd.
Principe di Banna 1831–49 abd.
Duca di Aosta 1831–49 abd.
Duca di Genova 1831–49 abd.
Duca del Monferrato 1831–49 abd.
Duc de Genevois 1831–49 abd.
Duca di Piacenza 1831–49 abd.
Duca di Carignano Ivoy 1831–49 abd.
Duc de Chablais 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Saluzzo 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Ivrea 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Susa 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Oristano 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Cesena 1831–49 abd.
Marchese in Italia 1831–49 abd.
Marquis de Tarantaise 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Borgomanero 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Cureggio 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Caselle 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Govone 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Saluzzola 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Racconigi 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Savona 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Modane 1831–49 abd.
Marquis de Lanslebourg 1831–49 abd.
Marquis of Pianezza 1831–49 abd.
Marquis of Rivoli 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Cavallermaggiore 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Marene 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Centallo 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Demonte 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Denzana 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Livorno Ferraris 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Santhià 1831–49 abd.
Marchese d'Aglié 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Ceva 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Maro 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Ghenna or Ghemme? 1831–49 abd.
Marchese di Villafranca 1831–49 abd.
Comte de Nice 1831–49 abd.
Comte de Romont 1831–49 abd.
Comte de Maurienne 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Asti 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Tenda 1831–49 abd.
Comte de Genevre 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Goceano 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Alessandria 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Novara 1831–49 abd.
Comte 1810 [FRA]
Conte or prince? di Carmagnola 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Tortona 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Bobbio 1831–49 abd.
Comte de Soissons
Conte di Sant'Antioco 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Pollenzo 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Roccabruna 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Tricerro 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Bairo 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Oregno 1831–49 abd.
Conte delle Apertole 1831–49 abd.
Conte di Villafranca 1831–49 abd.
Conte de Barge 1849†
Baron de Vaud 1831–49 abd.
Baron de Faucigny 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Pinerolo 1831–49 abd.
Seigneur de Monaco? 1831–49 abd.
Seigneur de Arbin 1831–49 abd.
Seigneur de Francin 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Roccabruna 1831–49 abd.
Consignore di Mentone 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Vercelli 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Lomellina 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Valsesia 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Tegerone 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Migliabruna 1831–49 abd.
Signore di Motturone 1831–49 abd.
Patrician of Venice
Patrician of Ferrara
Knight of the Order of Sant'Uberto
Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle
Knight of the Order of the Iron Crown
Knight of the Order of St Andrew
Grand Cross of the Constantinian Order of St George

Viceroy of Sardinia 1829
Regent of Sardinia 1821 (one week)


Charles Albert was educated in France, and on the fall of Napoleon I, he returned to Piedmont. On the partition of Italy by the treaties of 1815, Geneva, Piedmont, and Sardinia went to the house of Savoy. Against this partition of Italy among foreign rulers, however, the spirit of Italian nationality rebelled, and the association of the Carbonari spread over the whole peninsula, and penetrated all ranks of society. It was arranged that Naples should commence the revolution, and that Piedmont should follow up the movement. Both states were then to unite to expel the common enemy, Austria. The Piedmontese Carbonari affiliated Charles Albert, and accepted him as leader of the constitutional movement. The revolutions in Naples and Piedmont were both successful, and the Spanish constitution was proclaimed in all the important cities of the two kingdoms. As regent of Sardinia, Charles Albert swore fidelity to the constitution. Terrified, however, by the proclamation with which the new king heralded his arrival at Turin, he fled secretly at midnight to Novara, then, after a conference with the general of King Charles Felix's forces, to Milan. Three years later, and having borne arms in Spain against the very constitution he had conspired to establish and sworn to maintain in Piedmont, King Charles Felix permitted him to return to his country.

When Charles Albert ascended the throne in 1831, the secret association of 'Young Italy' was founded by Mazzini, already an exile, at Marseilles. Its aim being the overthrow of all the existing Italian governments, for the creation of the unity of Italy by means of a war of the whole people, it was even more dreaded by the princes of Italy than Carbonarism. The edicts of Charles Albert condemned to the galleys all guilty of perusing or possessing the journal of the association. In 1833, an accident revealed to the government a trace of the vast conspiracy, and indiscriminate arrests commenced, and fresh discoveries were the result.

In 1847 the Sicilian revolution broke out, not only in the name of reform and constitution, but of 'Italy and Nationality,' cries which were instantly echoed in every comer of Italy. Rome, Tuscany, and even Naples arose, and obliged their sovereigns to grant them representative governments and a national guard. Not until all the other princes of Italy had yielded, and only when longer resistance was impossible, did Charles Albert concede to the threats of his subjects the constitution that he had denied them.

In 1848, the Austrians were expulsed from Milan, the news of which brought great excitement to the Piedmontese. They demanded to be led against the Austrians, and threatened to overthrow the government in case of a refusal. The king was compelled to yield, but before crossing the frontier, he addressed despatches to the governments of Europe, and especially to England, protesting that the step was taken under compulsion and in order to save his crown, as the republic would inevitably be proclaimed were he to delay. The Austrians, disorganized by their defeat at Milan, acted merely on the defensive, and fled. Once the Austrian general, Radetsky, resumed the offensive, the king was defeated in two engagements, and obliged to make a precipitate retreat on Milan. An armistice was eventually signed with the Austrians, but after that expired and the war resumed, the defeat of the Piedmontese was rapid and complete. The king again demanded an armistice, but the terms offered by Radetsky were so humiliating, that Charles Albert preferred to abdicate rather than submit. He immediately retired to Portugal and spent his last days there.

Place of birth: Paris
Place of marriage: Florence
Place of death: Oporto, Portugal
Place of burial: Basilica of Superga

Son of Carlo Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano and Maria Christina, Princess of Saxony (Wettin). He married Maria Teresa, Princess of Tuscany, (Habsburg) in 1817, and had issue.



 

Sources

1. H. Montgomery-Massingberd, ed. Burke's Royal Families of the World. Volume I: Europe & Latin America. London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd., 1977.
2. Società Genealogica Italiana. Enciclopedia Genealogica del Mediterraneo. 2005–2018.

3. J. Thomas. The Universal Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, vol. 1 [part 1]. London: J.S. Virtue & Co., Limited, 1887.

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