Holy Roman Emperor
Carlos I, King of Spain 1516-56, abd
Co-king of Castile-Leon, 1506-55; sole king, 1555-56, abd
Co-king of Aragon, 1516-55; sole king, 1555-56, abd
Karl I, Archduke of Austria, 1519-21
Co-Titular King of Jerusalem, 1516-55; sole titular-king, 1555-56, abd
From his father Charles inherited the Low Country dominions and Burgundy,
and through his mother, her inherited Spain and Naples. On the death
of Ferdinand, 1516, Charles was recognized as joint ruler of Spain with
his mother; and on the death of his paternal grandfather, the Emperor
Maximilian, in 1519, he was elected Emperor of Germany.
Charles was now the most influential political figure of his time, and
the rivalry between himself and Francis I of France dominated the history
of Western Europe. The French were driven out of Italy. In 1525
Francis again entered Italy, but was taken prisoner at Pavia, and was
only released on resigning all his claims and pretensions.
Like his son, Philip II, Charles was a relentless opponent of Lutheranism.
The Peace of Augsburg, 1555, however, compelled him to acquiesce in the
establishment of Protestantism over the greater part of Germany. This
blow to his hopes, and his declining health, led to his abdication in
favour of his son Philip, 1556, and he retired to the monastery of San
Jerónimo de Yuste, in Estremadura.
Place of birth: Ghent
Place of death: San Jerónimo de Yuste