Food Additives

Additive Function/Category  
Where Added
Colouring Agents
Natural or nature-identical
Annatto, carotenes, chlorophyll, cochineal, paprika, turmeric, anthocyanins
Fruit jams, jellies, and marmalades; ice cream and ice cream mixes, cheeses; pickles and relishes; butter; liqueurs and cordials
Tartrazine, amaranth, allura red, sunset yellow
Similar to above
Titanium dioxide, iron oxide, silver metal, aluminium metal
Certain sugar products, jams; surface colorants of confectionery products
Amylase, cellulase, invertase, lactase, pullulanase, pentosanase, glucose isomerase
Ale, beer, malt liquor, cider wine, bread, flour; mash, coffee and tea extracts, fruit juice; liquid and soft-centred confectionery; reduced-lactose products; bread, flour, production of dextrins, maltose; ale, beer, bread, fructose syrups
Dairy-based flavourings, cheeses, modified fats for dietetic foods, bread, flour
Bromelain, ficin, papain, pancreatin, pepsin, protease, rennin
Beer, malt liquor, bread, flour, cheeses, meat-tenderising preparations, precooked cereals, milk, animal and vegetable hydrolysates, meat pickles
Catalase, glucose oxidase
Oxygen scavengers used in egg products and dairy products
Carriers or extractants
Acetone, benzyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, ethyl acetate, tributryrin, mono- and diglycerides, hexane
Spice extracts; flavouring preparations; added to coffee and tea for decaffeination; hops extraction, fats and oils seed meals
Aspartame, mannitol, sorbitol, xylitol, isomalt, sucralose, thaumatin
Dietetic foods (low calorie), soft drinks, bakery products, confectionery
Acetic acid, ascorbic acid and salts, sodium and potassium nitrates, sodium and potassium nitrites, wood smoke, benzoic acid and salts, sulphurous acid and salts, propionic acid and salts, sorbic acid and salts, ascorbyl palmitate and stearate, BHA, BHT, citric acid and salts, propyl gallate, tartaric acid
Meat and meat products, cured meat and fish products, fish and fish products, ale, beer, cider, malt liquor, cheeses and cheese spreads, canned or frozen fruit and vegetable products, fruit beverages, seafood products, bread and baked goods, fats, oils, etc.
Bleaching, maturing, and dough conditioning agents
Ammonium persulphate, ascorbic acid, benzoyl peroxide, chlorine and chlorine dioxide, sodium sulphite, potassium iodate
Flour, whole wheat flour, bread, cake mixes, some dough mixes
Anticaking agents
Silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, cellulose, various calcium salts
Salt, baking powder, and other dry mixes and powders
Emulsifying, gelling, stabilizing, and thickening agents
Various plant and microbial gums and polysaccharides and salts thereof, gelatin, pectin, acetylated monoglycerides, lecithin, methyl cellulose, various calcium and magnesium salts
Used in a wide range of food products from alcoholic beverages to milk and dairy products, fruit and vegetable products, to meat and meat products and oils and margarines
Firming agents
Aluminium, calcium, and sodium salts of various acids, for example, aluminium sulphate of calcium lactate
Canned fish and fish products, canned fruit and vegetable products, pickles and relishes
Glazing and polishing agents
Various gums and waxes, for example, beeswax, gum arabic, mineral oil, acetylated monoglycerides
Primarily confectionery products
Buffering agents, pH adjusting agents, acid reacting materials, and water correcting agents
Acetic acid and various salts, ammonium aluminium sulphate, ammonium or calcium hydroxide, citric acid and various salts, salts of phosphoric acid, cream of tartar
Baking powder, cocoa products, cheeses, ice cream mixes, alcoholic beverages, fruit and vegetable products
Sequestering agents
EDTA and salts thereof, citric acid and its salts, phosphoric acid and its salts
Pumping pickles, alcoholic beverages, canned seafood (lobster, clams, sea snails, and so forth), dairy products, meat and poultry products
Starch modifying agents
Hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, peracetic acid, sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid
Yeast foods
Ammonium, calcium, potassium and zinc salts of various acids such as phosphoric, carbonic, and citric
Flour, bread, some alcoholic beverages, bacterial starter cultures


Solomon, H. K. and W. W. Woys. Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2003.












at Amazon

About UC | Contact
2023 The Universal Compendium. All Rights Reserved.