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The Jacobite Succession

Jacobites was the name given after the revolution of 1688 to the adherents, first of the exiled English king James II, then of his descendants, who sought the restoration of the Stuart heirs to the British throne. The Jacobites were present in England and Ireland, but were comparatively more numerous and more active in Scotland. They were recruited largely, but not solely, from among the Roman Catholics, and the Protestants among them were often identical with the Non-Jurors. Owing to a variety of causes, Jacobitism began to lose ground after the accession of George I and the suppression of the revolt of 1715; and the total failure of the rising of 1745 may be said to mark its end as a serious political force. Although in 1765 it was said that Jacobitism was extinct, as a sentiment it remained for some time longer into the twentieth century. In 1750, during a strike of coal workers at Elswick, James III was proclaimed king; in 1780 certain persons walked out of the Roman Catholic Church at Hexham when George III was prayed for; and as late as 1784 a Jacobite rising was talked about. Northumberland was thus a Jacobite stronghold; and in Manchester, where in 1777 according to an American observer 'Jacobitism is openly professed', a Jacobite rendezvous known as 'John Shaw’s Club' lasted from 1735 to 1892. North Wales was another Jacobite centre. The 'Cycle of the White Rose'—the white rose being the badge of the Stuarts—composed of members of the principal Welsh families around Wrexham, lasted from 1710 until some time between 1850 and 1860. Jacobite traditions also lingered among the great families of the Scottish Highlands; the last person to suffer death as a Jacobite was Archibald Cameron, a son of Cameron of Lochiel, who was executed in 1753. The Jacobite sympathies of Samuel Johnson were well known, and on the death of Victor Emmanuel I, the ex-king of Sardinia, in 1824, Lord Liverpool wrote to Canning saying 'there are those who think that the ex-king was the lawful king of Great Britain'. Until the accession of King Edward VII finger bowls were not placed upon the royal dinner table, because in former times those who secretly sympathised with the Jacobites were in the habit of drinking to the king over the water. Upon the death of Henry Stuart, Cardinal York, the last of King James II’s descendants, in 1807, the rightful occupant of the British throne according to Jacobite principles was to be found among the descendants of Henrietta Anne, daughter of King Charles I of England and Scotland, who married Philip I, duke of Orleans. Today, the senior co-heir-general of Charles I is Franz, duke of Bavaria, of the former ruling family of Bavaria, and descendant of Henrietta Anne. He is considered by Jacobites to be the heir of the house of Stuart and the rightful ruler of England, Scotland and Ireland, although he does not advance the claim himself.[5][6]


 

                                      (1625)
                  [1]Charles I (Stuart)  =  Pss Henriette[1]
                     K of Great Britain  |    de France
                     & Ireland 1625-49†  |      †1669
                            *1600        |    (Bourbon)
                  _______________________|______________________
                 |          (2)                                 |       (1)
                 |         /(1673)                              |    (1661)\
        [1]James II/VII        =  Pss Maria d'Este       Pss Henrietta  =   Philippe I
     K of England, Scotland,   |      of Modena            of England   |  D d'Orléans
         Wales 1685-88 dep     |        †1718                 †1670     |     †1701
        claimant 1688-1701†    |       [1][2]                  [1]      |   (Bourbon)[2]
               *1633           |                                        |
                  _____________|                                 _______|
                 |                                              |         (1)
                 |       (1719)                                 |      (1684)\
       [1]'James III/VIII'  =  Pss Maria                  Pss Anne Marie  =   Vittorio Amedeo II
         claimant 1701-66†  |  Clementina                   d'Orléans     |      K of Sardinia
          (James Francis    |   Sobieska                      †1728       |         †1732
           Edward Stuart    |    †1735                         [2]        |        (Savoy)
            'P of Wales')   |    [2]                                      |
               *1688        |                                             |
                ____________|___________                         _________|
               |                        |                       |         (1)
               |                        |                       |        /(1722)
      [1]'Charles III'           [1]Henry IX           Carlo Emanuele III    =  Anna Christina
       claimant 1766-88†        claimant 1788-1807†       K of Sardinia      |  CP of Sulzbach
    (Charles Edward Stuart    (Card Henry Benedict            †1773          |      †1723
          'P of Wales')              Stuart)                                 |  (Wittelsbach)
             *1720                    *1725                                  |  [2]
                                                                 ____________|
                                                                |
                                                                |        (1750)
                                                       Vittorio Amedeo III  =    Inf María
                                                          K of Sardinia     | Antonia of Spain
                                                              †1796         |      †1785
                                                                            |     (Borbón)[2]
                                                                  __________|___________
                                                                 |                      |
                                                                 |                      |        (1789)
                                                           'Charles IV'             'Victor'        =   Maria Therese
                                                         claimant 1807-19†      claimant 1819-24†   | AD of Austria-Este
                                                        (Carlo Emanuele IV    (Vittorio Emanuele I  |       †1832
                                                           K of Sardinia)         K of Sardinia)    |     (Habsburg)
                                                               *1751                  *1759         |     [2]
                                                                                         ___________|
                                                                                        |
                                                                                        |        (1812)
                                                                                    'Mary II'       =  Francesco IV
                                                                                claimant 1824-40†   |   D of Modena
                                                                               (Pss Maria Beatrice  |     †1846
                                                                                   of Sardinia)     | (Habsburg-Este)
                                                                                      *1792         | [2]
                                                                                          __________|__________
                                                                                         |                     |          (1)
                                                                                         |                     |       (1847)\
                                                                                 [3]'Francis I'           Ferdinand       =   Elisabeth
                                                                              [3]claimant 1840-75†    AD of Austria-Este  | AD of Austria
                                                                                [2](Francesco V              †1849        |     †1903
                                                                                    D of Modena)              [2]         |   (Habsburg)
                                                                                       *1819                              |   [2]
                                                                                                                __________|
                                                                                                               |
                                                                                                               |        (1868)
                                                                                                       [3]'Mary III'       =  Ludwig III
                                                                                                   [3]claimant 1875-1919†  | K of Bavaria
                                                                                                    [2](Maria Theresia     |    †1921
                                                                                                      AD of Austria-Este)  | (Wittelsbach)
                                                                                                             *1849         | [4]
                                                                                                                ___________|
                                                                                                               |        (1)
                                                                                                               |       /(1900)
                                                                                                      [3]'Robert I/IV'     =  Marie Gabriele
                                                                                                    [3]claimant 1919-55†   |  Dss in Bavaria
                                                                                                     [4](Rupprecht CrP     |       †1912
                                                                                                          of Bavaria)      |   (Wittelsbach)
                                                                                                             *1869         |   [4]
                                                                                                                ___________|
                                                                                                               |        (1)
                                                                                                               |       /(1930)
                                                                                                        [1]'Albert'        =     Css Maria
                                                                                                 [1][4]claimant 1955-96†   | Css de Draskovich
                                                                                                     [4](Albrecht D of     |     Trakostjan
                                                                                                            Bavaria)       |       †1969
                                                                                                             *1905         |       [4]
                                                                                                                ___________|
                                                                                                               |
                                                                                                               |
                                                                                                      [5]'Francis II'
                                                                                                      [5]claimant 1996-
                                                                                                     (Franz, D of Bavaria)
                                                                                                         [4]*1933



Abbreviations


Sources

1. Hugh Montgomery-Massingberd, ed. Burke's Guide to the Royal Family. London: Burke’s Peerage Ltd., 1973.
2.
Charles Cawley. Medieval Lands - A prosopography of medieval European noble and royal families. The Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, ©2018.
3. Charles Petrie. The Jacobite movement: the Last Phase, 1716-1807. London : Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1950.
4. Steven Mueller. The Wittelsbach Dynasty. Bavaria: Waldmann Press, 2007.
5. Franz, Duke of Bavaria. The British Museum. © 2020 The Trustees of the British Museum.
6. Encyclopaedia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature and General Information, 11th edn, New York: Encyclopaedia Britannica Co., 1911.


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