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Largest Explosive Eruptions on Earth

Magnitude 
Caldera Name 
Deposit Name
Location
Caldera
Diameter (Km) 
Volume
(Km )
Age
(million years)
9.1
La Garita
Fish Canyon Tuff
Colorado, USA
100x35
5,000
27.8
8.8
Toba
Younger Toba Tuff
Indonesia
100x30
2,800
0.074
8.8
unknown
Lund Tuff
Utah, USA
N/A
2,600
29
8.7
Yellowstone
Huckleberry Ridge Tuff
Wyoming, USA
100x50
2,500
2.1
8.6
La Pacana
Atana Ignimbrite
Chile
60x35
1,600
4
8.6
unknown
Millbrig-Big Bentonite
Southeast USA
N/A
1,509
454
8.6
unknown
Green Tuff + SAM
Ethiopia
N/A
3,000
28-31
8.5
Blacktail
Blacktail Creek Tuff
Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA
100x60
1,500
6.6
8.5
Emory
Kneeling Nun Tuff
New Mexico, USA
25x55
1,310
33
8.5
Bachelor
Carpenter Ridge Tuff
Colorado, USA
20x28
1,200
27.5
8.5
Timber Mountain
Timber Mountain Tuff- Rainier Mesa Member
Nevada, USA
25x30
1,200
11.6
8.5
Paintbrush
Paintbrush Tuff-Topopah Spring Member
Nevada, USA
20
1,200
13.4
8.5
Bursum
Apache Springs Tuff
New Mexico, USA
30x40
1,200
28-29
8.4
Cerro Galan
Cerro Galan Ignimbrite
Argentina
32
1,050
2.2
8.4
unknown
Kinnekulle Bentonite
Southeast USA
N/A
972
454
8.4
Bursum
Bloodgood Canyon Tuff
New Mexico, USA
30x40
1,050
28-29
8.4
unknown
Deicke Bentonite
Unknown
N/A
943
454
8.4
Uncompahgre
Dillon/Sapinero Mesa
Colorado, USA
20x23
1,000
28.5
8.4
San Juan
Sapinero Mesa Tuff
Colorado, USA
22x24
1,000
28.5
8.4
Paintbrush
Paintbrush Tuff-Tiva Canyon Member
Nevada, USA
20
1,000
12.9
8.4
Chinati
Mitchel Mesa Rhyolite
Texas, USA
20x30
1,000
32-33
8.3
Yellowstone
Lava Creek Tuff
Wyoming, USA
85x45
1,000
0.64
8.3
Timber Mountain
Timber Mountain Tuff-
Ammonia Tanks Member
Nevada, USA
25x30
900
11.4
8.3
Porsea
Oldest Toba Tuff
Indonesia
100x30
820
0.79
8.3
Kilgore
Kilgore Tuff
Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA
60x80
800
4.3
8.2
Cerro Panizos
Panizos Ignimbrite
Argentina/Bolivia
18
652
6.1
8.2
unknown
Barrel Springs Formation
Texas, USA
N/A
675
36
8.2
unknown
Wild Cherry Formation
Texas, USA
N/A
675
36
8.2
Pastos Grandes
Sifon Ignimbrite
Bolivia
40x50
1,200
8.3
8.1
unknown
Huaylillas Ignimbrite
Bolivia
10
1,100
5
8.1
Platoro
La Jara Canyon Member
Colorado, USA
18x22
592
30
8.1
Taupo
Oruanui
New Zealand
35x25
1,170
0.0265
8.1
San Luis
Nelson Mountain Tuff
Colorado, USA
18
562
27
8.1
Cerro Galan
Real Grande and Cueva Negra
Argentina
32
510
4.2
8.1
Turkey Creek
Rhyolite Canyon Formation
Arizona, USA
21
500
25
8.1
Tucson Mountain
Cat Mountain Rhyolite
Arizona, USA
25
500
73
8.1
Long Valley
Bishop Tuff
California, USA
20x35
500
0.7

8.1

Minarets
unnamed
California, USA
N/A
500
100
8.1
Creede
Snowshoe Mountain Tuff
Colorado, USA
24
500
27
8.1
Mount Hope
Masonic Park Tuff
Colorado, USA
15
500
29
8.1
Ute Creek
Ute Ridge Tuff
Colorado, USA
8
500
29
8.1
Twin Peaks
Challis Creek Tuff
Idaho, USA
20
500
45
8.1
Cowboy Rim
Gillespie Tuff
New Mexico, USA
18x26
500
33
8.1
Juniper
Oak Creek Tuff
New Mexico, USA
25
500
35
8.1
Organ
Cueva Soledad Rhyolite
New Mexico, USA
16
500
32
8.1
Socorro
Hells Mesa Rhyolite
New Mexico, USA
25x35
500
33
8.1
Blue Creek
Blue Creek Tuff
Snake River Plain, Idaho, USA
30x55
500
5.6

Sources

Breining, G. Super Volcano: The Ticking Time Bomb Beneath Yellowstone National Park. St. Paul, Minn.: Voyageur Press, 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 




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