THE UNIVERSAL COMPENDIUM of Lists

Flag

National

Ratio

Adopted

Usage

Symbolism


Afghanistan

2:3

2004

National

· Black: the past
· Red: blood shed for independence; or, bravery
· Green: Islam, hope for the future; or, agricultural prosperity
· National coat of arms



 
Akrotiri

1:2

1960

As UK
(Territory of UK)

[See UK]                                                           
 
Albania
 
5:7
 
7 Apr. 1992

National

· Black eagle: national emblem linked to the 15th century hero Skanderbeg
 
Algeria
 
2:3
 
3 July 1962

National and
Civil
 
· Green: Islam
· White: purity and peace
· Red crescent and star of Islam: from 16th century Ottoman rule (red: liberty; longer horns: increased or good fortune and happiness)
 
American Samoa
 
1:2

27 Apr. 1960

Official
(Territory of
USA)
 
· American bald eagle holding traditional Samoan symbols of a war club and a coconut fibre fly whisk
· Red and white: traditional colours of Samoa and the US
· Combination mimics the US Great Seal, reflecting relationship between both lands
 
Andorra
 
7:10
 
10 July 1996

National and Civil
 
· Blue and red: from French flag
· Yellow and red: from Spanish flag
· National coat of arms
 
Angola

2:3

11 Nov. 1975

National and Civil

· Red: liberty
· Black: African continent
· Half cogwheel and machete: agriculture and industry; or, workers and peasants
(Colours and star adopted from the People's Liberation Movement of Angola)
 
Anguilla
 
1:2

1990

Official
(Territory of UK)

· Union Flag: British ties
· Territory's coat of arms
 
Antigua and Barbuda

2:3

27 Feb. 1967

National and Civil

· Black: African heritage
· White: hope
· Blue: Caribbean Sea; or, hope
· Red: dynamism of the people
· V-shape: victory
· Rising sun: new era
(Or yellow, white and blue refer to sun, sea and sand)

Argentina
 
5:8
 
12 Feb. 1812

National and Civil

· Blue and white from cockades worn by revolutionaries of 1812; or, the skies and snow of the Andes
· Sun: the Sun of May, with features of Inti, the Inca god of the sun; commemorates appearance of the sun through cloudy skies on 25 May 1810 during independence demonstrations


Armenia


1:2
 
24 Aug. 1990

National and Civil

· Blue: hope and the Armenian skies
· Red: Armenian blood spilt during independence struggle
· Orange: blessings of hard work, the land and the courage of its farmers
 
Aruba

2:3

18 Mar. 1976

Official
(Territory of Netherlands)

· Star: Aruba with red soil and white beaches
· Four star points: four major languages (Papiamento, Dutch, Spanish, English); four compass points indicating the inhabitants come from all over the world
· Blue: Caribbean waters and skies
· Stripes: two major industries of tourism and minerals
 
Ashmore and Cartier Islands
 
1:2
 
1933

As Australia
(Territory of Australia)

 
[See Australia]
 
Australia

1:2

29 May 1909

National and Civil

· Union Flag: British ties
· Large seven-pointed Commonwealth or Federation Star: federation of the colonies, one point for each of the original colonies
· Stars Southern Cross constellation

Austria

2:3

1 May 1945

National and Civil

· Red and white: blood-soaked tunic of Duke Leopold V of Austria who, after removing his belt, revealed a white band; the colours he then adopted for his banner
 
Azerbaijan

1:2

5 Feb. 1991

National and Civil

· Green: Islam
· Blue: Turkic heritage
· Red: European influence; or, modernisation and progress
· White crescent of Islam and eight-pointed star representing the eight Turkic peoples

Bahamas

1:2

10 July 1973

National

· Black: strength of the people
· Blue: Caribbean Sea
· Yellow: islands' beaches
· Triangle: enterprise and determination of the people

Bahrain

3:5

2002

National and Civil

· Red and white: traditional colours of the Gulf states flags
· Serrated band points: five pillars of Islam
 
Bangladesh

3:5

25  1972

National

· Green: the land or vegetation
· Red disc: rising sun and struggle for independence


Barbados


2:3

30 Nov. 1966

National and Civil

· Blue: the sea and sky
· Gold: the beaches
· Head of a trident: a break with the past and independence

Belarus

1:2

16 May 1995

National and Civil
 
· Red: past struggles from oppression
· Green: hope and the country's forests
· National ornament of woven cloth

Belgium

13:15

23  1831

National and Civil

· Colours from arms of duchy of Brabant
· Vertical layout from French flag

Belize

2:3

21 Sept. 1981

National and Civil

· Blue: colour of the People's United Party (PUP)
· Red: colour of the  United Democratic Party (UDP)
· National coat of arms
· Wreath of fifty leaves surrounding the arms: 1950, year the PUP gained power
 
Benin

2:3

16 Nov. 1959

National and Civil

· Red: courage
· Green: hope and revival
· Yellow: wealth
(Pan-African colours symbolising African unity and nationalism)
 
Bermuda

1:2
 
Oct. 1967

Official
(Territory of UK)

· Union Flag: British ties
· Territory's coat of arms
 
Bhutan

2:3

c. 1965

National and Civil

· Yellow: ruling dynasty
· Druk (Thunder Dragon): national emblem
· Orange: Buddhism, Drukpa monasteries and religious practices
 
Bolivia

2:3

30 Nov. 1851

National and Civil

· Red: valour and blood of national heroes
· Yellow: nation's mineral reserves
· Green: fertility of the land
· National coat of arms
 
Bosnia and Herzegovina

1:2

4 Feb. 1998

National and Civil

· Triangle: Bosnia's geographical shape with its three points standing for Bosniaks, Croats, and Serbs
· Stars: Europe
· White, blue and yellow: traditional nationals colours also associated with neutrality and peace
 
Botswana

2:3

30 Sept. 1966

National and Civil

· Black and white: racial harmony
· Blue: water and life
 
Bouvet Island

8:11

1928

As Norway
(Territory of Norway)

[See Norway]
 
Brazil

7:10

15 Nov. 1889

National and Civil

· Green: the forests
· Yellow rhombus: mineral resources
· 27 stars: each state in the Federation and the federal district
· Blue circle: sky over Rio de Janeiro on 15 Nov.. 1889 when the Republic was declared
· White equatorial band with national motto 'Order and Progress'

British Indian Ocean Territory

1:2

1990

Official
(Territory of UK)

· Palm tree: island's vegetation
· Crown: British possession
· Wavy stripes: Indian Ocean
· Stripes: possibly the six atolls of the archipelago
 
British Virgin Islands

1:2

1956

Official
(Territory of UK)

· Union Flag: British ties
· Islands' coat of arms
 
Brunei

1:2

29 Sept. 1959

National and Civil

· Yellow: the sultanate
· Black and white bands: chief ministers
· National emblem

Bulgaria

2:3

22 Nov. 1990

National and Civil

· White: love of peace
· Red: army's valour
· Green: youthfulness of the emerging nation; or, freedom
(Green replaced blue in Pan-Slav red, white and blue colours)

Burkina Faso

2:3

4 Aug. 1984


National and Civil


· Red: 1984 revolution; or, the struggle for independence
· Green: country's resources; or, hope and abundance
· Star: guiding light of the revolution; or, the country's mineral wealth

Burundi

2:3

28 June 1867

National and Civil

· Green: hope and optimism
· White: peace and purity
· Red: blood shed for independence
· Stars: three ethnic groups of Tutsi, Hutu and Twa and three elements in the national motto (unity, work, progress)


Cambodia


2:3


29 June 1993


National and Civil


· Red and blue: traditional national colours
· Temple of Angkor Wat


Cameroon


2:3


20 May 1975


National and Civil


· Pattern from France's flag
· Green: hope and the forests in the south
· Red: unity
· Yellow: prosperity; or, the sun, happiness and the savannahs in the north
· Star of unity
(Pan-African colours symbolising African unity and nationalism)


Canada


1:2


15 Feb. 1965


National and Civil


· Maple leaf: national emblem
· White: the snowy north
· Red: sacrifices made in World War I


Cape Verde


10:17


25 Feb. 1992


National and Civil


· Blue: Atlantic Ocean and the sky
· Red stripe between two white stripes: road to formation of the country through peace (white) and effort (red)
· Ten stars: nation's united ten major islands


Cayman Islands


1:2


14 May 1958


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Islands' coat of arms


Central African Republic


2:3


1 Dec. 1958


National and Civil


· French flag and Pan-African colours are combined
· Vertical red stripe: unity and the blood of humanity; or, blood spilt in the independence struggle
· Blue: sky and freedom
· White: peace and dignity
· Green: hope and faith
· Yellow: tolerance
· Star: hope of a union under France; or, aspiration towards a vibrant future


Chad


2:3


6 Nov. 1959


National and Civil


· Two French flag and two Pan-African colours are combined
· Red: progress, unity, and sacrifice, and blood spilt in the independence struggle
· Yellow: sun and desert in the north
· Blue: sky and waters of the south


Chile


2:3


18 Oct. 1817


National and Civil


· Based on US flag
· White: snow of the Andes
· Red: blood shed for freedom and independence
· Blue: Andean skies
· Star: guide to progress and honour


China


2:3


1 Oct. 1949


National and Civil


· Large star: communism
· Smaller stars: the social classes (working class, peasantry, urban petty bourgeoisie, national bourgeoisie [capitalists])
· Red: communist revolution and traditional colour of the Chinese


Christmas Island


1:2


2002


Official
(Aus. territory)


· Golden Bosun Bird: island's emblem
· Southern Cross: Australia
· Map of the island


Clipperton Island


2:3


1935


As France
(Possession of France)


[See France]


Cocos (Keeling) Islands


1:2


1955


As Australia
(Territory of Australia)


[See Australia]


Colombia


2:3


17 Dec. 1819


National


· Yellow: the land's gold; or, sovereignty and justice
· Blue: independence from Spain; or, the seas; or, loyalty and vigilance
· Red: blood spilt for freedom; or, valour and generosity
(Original colours of Gran Colombia flag)


Comoros


2:3


 2002


Government and Civil


· Crescent of Islam
· Green: Islam
· Stars: nation's four islands
· Stripes: nation's four islands


Democratic Republic of the Congo


2:3


18 Feb. 2006


National and Civil


· Gold stripes: hope in the future; or, country's wealth and prosperity
· Red diagonal: blood shed in civil wars; or, the country's martyrs
· Blue: peace and hope
· Star: unity and country's brilliant future


Republic of the Congo


2:3


20 Nov. 1959


National and Civil


· Pan-African colours
· Green: agriculture and forests
· Yellow: friendship and nobility of the people
· Red: associated with independence struggle


Cook Islands


1:2


4 Aug. 1979


Official
(Association with NZ)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Blue: peaceful ocean nation
· Stars: equality of the fifteen islands; faith in God


Coral Sea Islands


1:2


1969


As Australia
(Territory of Australia)


[See Australia]


Costa Rica


3:5


29 Sept. 1848


National and State


· Colours from France's flag
· Blue: sky, opportunity, and perseverance
· White: peace, happiness, and wisdom
· Red: blood shed for freedom; generosity and vibrancy of the people


Côte d'Ivoire


2:3


3 Dec. 1959


National and Civil


· Design from France's flag
· Orange: savannah grasslands of the north and fertility
· Green: forests of the south and hope for a bright future
· White: country's rivers; or, peace and unity


Croatia


1:2


22 Dec. 1990


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Pan-Slav red, white and blue colours


Cuba


1:2


20 May 1902


National and Civil


· Lone Star: lights the way to freedom
· Red: blood shed in independence struggle
· Triangle: liberty, equality, fraternity
· Blue bands: three old divisions of the island (central, occidental, oriental)
·  White bands: purity of the independence ideal
(Design from US stars and stripes, star from flag of Texas)


Curacao


2:3


2 July 1984


Official
(Country of Netherlands)


· Stars: the two islands; peace, happiness
· Five star points: five continents from which island's people derive
· Upper blue section: sky
· Lower blue section: sea, loyalty
· Yellow: sun, happy nature of the inhabitants




······
 



Cyprus
············
Northern Cyprus


3.5
······
2.3


16 Aug. 1960
······
1983


National and Civil
······


· Copper colour: island's name
· Olive branches: hope for peace and reconciliation between Greek and Turkish communities
······
· Based on the Turkish flag, but with reversed colours


Czech Republic


2:3


30 Mar. 1920


National and Civil


· White and red: heraldic colours of Bohemia
· Blue triangle: state of Moravia


Denmark


28:37


1625


National and Civil


· Based on a legend that a red flag with a white cross fell from the sky and was caught by the king during a 13th century battle
· May originate from a crusader banner or ensign





Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area


1:2


1960


As UK
(Territory of UK)


[See UK]



Djibouti


2:3
or 21:38


27 June 1977


National and Civil


· Blue: sea, sky and the Issa people
· Green: the earth, the Afar people and their links with Islam
· White: peace
· Star: struggle for independence and state unity


Dominica


1:2


3 Nov. 1978


National and Civil


· Yellow: sunshine, main agricultural products (citrus and bananas), the Carib Indians
· Black: fertile soil and African heritage
· Green: country's vegetation
· White: rivers, waterfalls and the purity of aspirations
· Triple-coloured cross: Christian Trinity
· Stars: the ten parishes
· Red disc: social justice
· Sisserou parrot: a national symbol


Dominican Republic


2:3


6 Nov. 1844


National and state


· Blue: liberty
· Red: blood of heroes
· White: salvation
· Cross: Trinitarian independence movement symbol
· National coat of arms


East Timor


1:2


20 May 2002


National and Civil


· Star: hope, peace, guiding light
· Black: obscurantism, past oppression
· Yellow: past colonialism; or, country's wealth
· Red: struggle for national liberation


Ecuador


1:2


26 Sept. 1860


National


· Yellow: federation colour; or, sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth
· Blue: independence from Spain; or, the sky, sea, and rivers
· Red: courage; or, blood of patriots spilt in struggle for freedom and justice
· National coat of arms
(Original colours of Gran Colombia flag)


Egypt


2:3


4 Oct. 1984


National and Civil


· Black: oppression
· Red: bloody struggle
· White: bright future
· Eagle of Saladin national emblem
(Band colours from Arab Liberation flag)


El Salvador


189:335


17 May 1912


National and State


· Blue bands: Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
· White band: land between the two bodies of waters, and peace and prosperity
· National coat of arms
(Based on flag of Federal Republic of Central America)


Equatorial Guinea


2:3


12 Oct. 1968


National and Civil


· Blue triangle: the sea
· Green: jungle and natural resources
· White: peace
· Red: fight for independence
· National coat of arms


Eritrea


1:2


24 May 1993


National and Civil


· Olive branch encircled by wreath: Eritrean autonomy
· Green: country's agriculture economy
· Blue: bounty of the sea
· Red: blood spilt in fight for freedom
· Red triangle: shape of the country
(Colours from Eritrean People's Liberation Front)


Estonia


7:11


8 May 1990


National and Civil


· White: virtue, striving towards enlightenment, struggle for freedom, the snow, birch bark, summer nights under the midnight sun
· Blue: loyalty, faith, devotion, sky, sea and lakes
· Black: past oppression and the soil


Ethiopia


1:2


6 Feb. 1996


National and Civil


· Red: strength and sacrifice
· Green: fertility of the land, hope
· Yellow: peace and love; or, justice and harmony
· National emblem


Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)


1:2


1948


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Island's coat of arms


Faroe Islands


8:11


1940


Official
(Part of Kingdom of  Denmark)


· White: clear sky, foam of the waves
· Red and blue: traditional colours



Fiji


1:2


10 Oct. 1970


National and Civil


· Union Flag:  British ties
· Blue: Pacific Ocean
· National coat of arms


Finland


11:18


29 May 1918


National and Civil


· White: snows of winter
· Blue: the skies and lakes
(Based on the Scandinavian cross)


France


2:3


15 Feb. 1794


National and Civil


· Blue and red: Parisian militia
· White: House of Bourbon
· Red, white and blue: liberty, equality and fraternity




······
 



French Guiana


2:3
······


1794
······
22  2010


As France (Overseas dept of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······
· Green: forests
· Yellow: land's treasures
· Red star: socialist orientation




······
 



French Polynesia


2:3
······
2:3


1844
······
1984


Official occasions (Overseas country of France]
······
Official


[See France]
······
· National coat of arms
· Red and white: traditional Polynesian colours


French Southern and Antarctic Lands


2:3


1794


As France
(Possession of France)


[See France]


Gabon


3:4


9 Aug. 1960


National and Civil


· Gold: the equator and sun
· Green: forests and natural resources
· Blue: sea


Gambia


2:3


18 Feb. 1965


National and Civil


· Red: the savannah and sun
· Blue: Gambia River
· Green: forests and agriculture
· White: peace and unity


Georgia


2:3


14  2004


National and Civil


· Large red cross of St George
· Four small crosses: possibly based on the 'Jerusalem' cross


Germany


3:5


23 May 1949


National and Civil


· Interpretations include: colours appearing on the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor and those from soldiers' uniforms during the Napoleonic Wars


Ghana


2:3


6 Mar. 1957


National


· Pan-African colours
· Red: blood shed for independence
· Yellow: mineral wealth
· Green: rich forests and natural wealth
· Star of African freedom


Gibraltar


1:2


1983


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Castle: territory as a fortress
· Key: territory's strategic importance in the Mediterranean
(Design from 1502 coat of arms)


Greece


2:3


1822


National and Civil


· White cross: Greek Orthodoxy
· Blue: sea and sky
· White: purity of the independence struggle
· Stripes: possibly the nine syllables in the cry 'Freedom or Death' uttered during the war of independence


Greenland


2:3


1985


Official
(Part of Kingdom of  Denmark)


· White: ice
· Red: sun
· Colours from Danish flag symbolising the link between both lands


Grenada


3:5


7 Feb. 1974


National and Civil


· Red: courage, harmony, unity and vitality
· Yellow: the sun, wisdom and warmth
· Green: vegetation and agriculture
· Six outer stars: six parishes
· Central star on red disc: the capital, St George's
· Nutmeg pod: national product


Guadeloupe


2:3


1794


As France
(Department of France)


[See France]


Guam


22:41


1917


Official with US flag
(Territory of USA)


· Seal of the territory
· Blue: sea
· Red: blood shed in struggle against oppression
(Colours from US flag)


Guatemala


5:8


17 Aug. 1871


National and state


· Blue: Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea, the sea and sky
· White: purity and peace
· National coat of arms
(Based on flag of Federal Republic of Central America)


Guernsey


2:3


1985


Official, subordinate to UK flag
(British crown dependency)


· Red cross of St George: ties to England; British Crown dependency status
· Gold cross of William the Conqueror: added to differentiate from English flag


Guinea


2:3


10 Nov. 1958


National and Civil


· From France's flag, but using Pan-African colours
· Red: people's sacrifice
· Yellow: sun and earth's riches
· Green: vegetation


Guinea-Bissau


1:2


24 Sept. 1973


National and Civil


· Black star: unity of Africa
· Yellow: sun
· Green: hope
· Red: blood shed for independence


Guyana


3:5


20 May 1966


National and Civil


· Red: dynamism, sacrifice and zeal for reform
· Yellow: mineral wealth
· Green: forests and fields
· Golden arrow: bright future
· White: rivers
· Black: perseverance


Haiti


3:5


18 May 1803


National and Civil


· Blue and red (French flag): union of blacks and mulattoes
· National coat of arms


Heard Island and McDonald Islands


1:2


1947


As Australia
(Territory of Australia)


[See Australia]


Honduras


1:2


16 Feb. 1866


National and Civil


· Blue bands: Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
· White band: land between the two bodies of waters, and peace and prosperity
· Five stars: original members of Federal Republic of Central America
(Based on flag of Federal Republic of Central America)


Hong Kong


2:3


1997


Official, subordinate to China flag
(Region of China)


· Red: motherland of China
· Bauhinia flower: national emblem
· Stars: linked to flag of China


Hungary


2:3


1 Oct. 1957


National and Civil


· Red: strength; or, blood spilt defending the land
· White: faithfulness; or, freedom
· Green: hope; or, the pasturelands
· Colours from national arms, design from French Revolution flag


Iceland


18:25


19 June 1915


National and Civil


· White: snow and ice fields
· Blue: Atlantic Ocean
· Red: volcanic fires


India


2:3


22 July 1947

National


· Orange: courage, sacrifice, spirit of renunciation
· White: peace, purity, truth
· Green: faith, fertility, chivalry
· Blue: sky and ocean
· Chakra: wheel of life in movement, death in stagnation


Indonesia


2:3


17 Aug. 1945


National and Civil


· Red: the body; or, courage
· White: the soul; or, purity
(From the banner of Majapahit Empire)


Iran


4:7


29 July 1980


National and Civil


· Green: Islam, growth
· White: honesty, peace
· Red: bravery, martyrdom
· Word 'Allah' shaped as a tulip, symbol of martyrdom
· Arabic script 'Allah Akbar' repeated eleven times on green and red band


Iraq


2:3


19 Feb. 2008


National and Civil


· Black: triumphs of Islam; or, oppression
· Red: courage; or, overcoming oppression through bloody struggle
· White: generosity; or, bright future
· Green: Islam
· Arabic script 'Allah Akbar'
(Band colours from Arab Liberation flag)


Ireland


1:2


21  1919


National and Civil


· Green: Catholic people or Irish nationalists (Gaelic)
· Orange: Protestant people or Orange tradition (supporters of William of Orange)
· White: union/truce between the two
(Colours have no official meaning)


Isle of Man


1:2


1966


Official, subordinate to UK flag (British crown dependency)


· Triskelion
(Based on the arms of last known  Norse King of Mann)


Israel


8:11


28 Oct. 1948


National


· Blue and white: Jewish prayer shawl colours
· Shield of David


Italy


2:3


18 June 1946


National


· Red and white: Milan
· Green: Milanese civic guard uniform colour
(Inspired by the French flag through Napoleon)


Jamaica


1:2


6 Aug. 1962


National and Civil


· Green: hope, vegetation, agriculture
· Yellow: sunshine
· Black: hardships
(Pan-African colours)


Jan Mayen


8:11


1929


As Norway
(Territory of Norway)


[See Norway]


Japan


7:10


27  1870


National and Civil


· Red disc: the Lucky Sun
· White: honesty and purity


Jersey


3:5


7 Apr. 1981


Official, subordinate to UK flag (British crown dependency)


· Red diagonal cross on white: saltire of St Patrick
· Shield of England: used historically in Jersey as island's emblem
· yellow crown of Plantagenet: possibly island's loyalty to that dynasty


Jordan


1:2


16 Apr. 1928


National and Civil


· Black: Abbassid Caliphate
· White: Ummayyad Caliphate
· Green: Fatimid Caliphate
· Red triangle: 1916 Great Arab Revolt
· Seven-pointed star: seven opening verses of the Koran
(Pan-Arab colours)


Kazakhstan


1:2


4 June 1992


National and Civil


· Blue: endless sky; water; cultural and ethnic unity
· Sun: wealth and plenitude
· Sun rays in form of grains: abundance and prosperity
· Steppe eagle: freedom, power, flight to the future
· Traditional national ornamental pattern 'koshkar-muiz'


Kenya


2:3


12 Dec. 1963


National and Civil


· Black: majority population
· Red: blood shed in freedom struggle
· Green: natural wealth
· White: peace
· Maasai warrior shield and crossed spears: defence of freedom
(Black, red, green bands from KANU party flag)


Kiribati


1:2


12 July 1979


National and Civil


· Frigate bird: authority, freedom, command of the sea
· Wavy stripes: Pacific Ocean
· White stripes: three island groups - Gilbert, Line, Phoenix Islands
· Seventeen sun rays: 16 Gilbert Islands and Banaba


Kosovo


2:3


18 Feb. 2008


National and Civil


· Stars: six major ethnic groups (Albanians, Serbs, Turks, Gorani, Roma, Bosniaks)
· Blue and yellow: EU
· Nation's map


Kuwait


1:2


7 Sept. 1961


National and Civil


· Black: defeat of the enemy
· Green: fertile fields
· Red: blood of the enemy
· White: purity
(Pan-Arab colours)


Kyrgyzstan


3:5


3 Mar. 1992


National and Civil


· Red: bravery, valour, Manas the Noble (national hero)
· Sun: peace and wealth
· Sun rays: nation's forty tribes
· Kyrgyz yurt's tunduk in the centre


Laos


2:3


2 Dec. 1975


National and Civil


· Blue: wealth, prosperity, Mekong River
· Red: blood spilt in struggle for freedom
· White disc: unity under  People's Revolutionary Party, bright future, full moon


Latvia


1:2


27 Feb. 1990


National and Civil


· Red: willingness to defend liberty, bled shed by wounded leader (legendary)
· White: sheet used to wrap wounded leader (legendary)
(In use by Latvian tribes c. 1280)


Lebanon


2:3


7 Dec. 1943


National


· Red: self-sacrifice, blood shed for liberation
· White: peace, purity, snow on mountains
· Cedar tree: holiness, eternity, strength, steadiness, happiness, prosperity


Lesotho


2:3


4 Oct. 2006


National and Civil


· Blue: water, rain
· White: peace
· Green: plenty, prosperity
· Mokorotlo (Basotho hat): indigenous people


Liberia


10:19


26 July 1847


National and Civil


· Stripes: eleven Liberian Declaration of Independence signatories
· Square: African mainland
· Star: freedom granted to the ex-slaves
· Blue: liberty, justice, fidelity
· White: purity, cleanliness, guilelessness
· Red: steadfastness, valour, fervour
(Based on US flag)


Libya


1:2


27 Feb. 2011


National


· Red: Fezzan region
· Black: Cyrenaica region
· Green: Tripolitania region
· Crescent and star: Islam


Liechtenstein


3:5


24 June 1937


National and Civil


· Crown: principality
· Blue and red: possibly from livery design used in the royal household


Lithuania


3:5


20 Mar. 1989


National and Civil


· Green: forests, freedom, hope
· Yellow: wheat, sun, light, goodness, freedom from want
· Red: patriotism, courage, blood spilt in defence on the homeland


Luxembourg


3.5


1848


National


· Colours from the grand duke's coat of arms, from the thirteenth century


Macau


2:3


1999


Official, subordinate to China flag
(Region of China)


· Lotus flower: region's floral emblem
· Three petals: region's peninsula and two islands
· Stars: linked to flag of China


Macedonia


1:2


5 Oct. 1995


National and Civil


· Sun of Liberty
· Red and yellow: traditional national colours


Madagascar


2:3


14 Oct. 1958


National and Civil


· Red: sovereignty
· Green: hope; Hova (former peasant class)
· White: purity
(Red and white originally colours of Merina Kingdom)


Malawi


2:3


6 July 1964


National and Civil


· Black: nation's African heritage
· Red: blood shed for freedom
· Green: land, nature
· Rising sun: new dawn, hope for freedom for Africa
(Colours from Malawi Congress Party)


Malaysia


1:2


16 Sept. 1963


National and Civil


· Crescent and star: Islam
· Fourteen star points: unity between the states and federal government of the federation
· Red and white stripes: equal status of the thirteen states and the federal government of the federation
· Blue: unity of the people
· Yellow: royal colour of Malay rulers


Maldives


2:3


26 July 1965


National and Civil


· Green: peace, prosperity
· Red: blood shed in independence struggle
· Crescent: Islam


Mali


2:3


1 Mar. 1961


National and Civil


· Modelled on France's flag using Pan-African colours


Malta


2:3


21 Sept. 1964


National


· George Cross: awarded to the people of Malta in 1942 by George VI of Britain for bravery and gallantry in World War II
· Red and white: from badge of Knights of Malta; or, from the banner of Count Roger of Sicily, 1091


Marshall Islands


10:19


1 May 1979


National and Civil


· Star: Cross of Christianity; or, nation's position to the north
· 24 star rays: nation's 24 electoral districts
· Four larger star rays: cultural centres Majuro, Jaluit, Wotje, Ebeye
· Orange stripe: Ralik Chain of islands, sunset, courage
· White stripe: Ratak Chain of islands, sunrise, peace
· Both stripes: the equator
· Blue: Pacific Ocean




······
 



Martinique


2:3
······


1794
······
1766


As France
(Overseas dept of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······
· Four coiled fer-de-lances: native to the island


Mauritania


2:3


1 Apr. 1959


National and Civil


· Green: Islam
· Gold: sands of the Sahara
· Crescent and star of Islam


Mauritius


2:3


9  1968


National


· Red: independence, self-determination
· Yellow: bright future, new light of independence, golden sunshine
· Blue: Indian Ocean
· Green: vegetation, agriculture




······
 



Mayotte


2:3
······
2:3


1843
······


As France
(Overseas dept of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······


Mexico


4:7


2 Nov. 1821


National and Civil


· Red: hardiness, bravery, strength, valour
· White: peace, honesty
· Green: hope, joy, love
· National coat of arms
(Modelled on French flag)


Federated States of Micronesia


10:19


30 Nov. 1978


National and Civil


· Blue: Pacific Ocean
· Stars: nation's four islands (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap)


Moldova


1:2


12 May 1990


National and Civil


· Colours: links with Romania
· National coat of arms


Monaco


4:5


4 Apr. 1881


National and Civil


· Heraldic colours of the ruling Grimaldi family in use since 1339


Mongolia


1:2


12 Feb. 1992


Civil and State


· Soyonbo national emblem: cultural and religious philosophical principles (fire, sun, moon, earth, water, yin-yang)
· Red: progress, prosperity (originally communism)
· Sky blue: sky, nation's traditional colour


Montenegro


1:2


13 July 2004


National and Civil


· National coat of arms


Montserrat


1:2


1962


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Territory's coat of arms


Morocco


2:3


17 Nov. 1975


National and Civil


· Red: descendant of royal family from Prophet Muhammad
· Seal of Solomon: five pillars of Islam, association between God and the nation


Mozambique


2:3


1 May 1983


National and Civil


· National emblem
· Red: struggle for independence
· Green: land's riches
· Black: African continent
· Yellow: land's minerals
· White: peace
(Colours from Frente da Libertação da Moçambique party flag)


Myanmar/
Burma


2:3


21 Oct. 2010


· Triband colours used from 1943-45 during Japanese occupation


Namibia


2:3


21 Mar. 1990


National and Civil


· Red: heroism of the people and determination for equal opportunity
· White: peace, unity, tranquillity, harmony
· Blue: sky, Atlantic Ocean, water resources, rain
· Green: vegetation, agricultural resources
· Sun: life, energy, power, existence
(Blue, red green: South West African People's Organisation party colours; red, white, blue: Democratic Turnhalle Alliance party colours)


Nauru


1:2


31  1968


National and Civil


· Blue: skies, Pacific Ocean
· Gold stripe: Equator
· Star: nation's location in relation to Equator
· Twelve star points: nation's original tribes


Navassa Island


10:19


1857


As USA
(Territory of USA) 


[See USA]


Nepal


4:3


16 Dec1962


National and Civil


· Blue border: peace, harmony
· Red: from rhododendron, national flower; victory, bravery
· Upper charge: nation's royal house; Hinduism
· Lower charge: Rana family; Buddhism
· Moon: serenity of the people, shade, cool weather
· Sun: heat, nation's higher temperatures
· Two triangles: Himalaya Mountains


Netherlands


2:3


19 Feb. 1937


National and Civil


· Blue and white: originally, faith in God
· Based on the livery of William I, Prince of Orange (16th century), who used orange instead of red




······
 



New Caledonia

 


2:3
······
1:2


1853
······
July 2010


As France
(Collectivity of France)
······
Official (Kanak flag)


[See France]
······


New Zealand


1:2


12 June 1902


National


· Union Flag: British ties
· Fours stars: Southern Cross constellation


Nicaragua


3:5


4 Sept. 1908


National and Civil


· Blue: Pacific Ocean, Caribbean Sea
· White: land between the two bodies of waters
· National arms
(Based on flag of Federal Republic of Central America)


Niger


2:3


23 Nov. 1959


National and Civil


· Orange: Sahara region
· White: purity, innocence
· Green: hope, fertile and productive southwest along the Niger River
· Disc: sun, people's sacrifice


Nigeria


1:2


1 Oct. 1960


National


· White: Peace, unity
· Green: forests, natural wealth


Niue


1:2


Oct. 1975


Official
(Association with NZ)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Four small stars: New Zealand
· Large star: Niue
· Yellow: sunshine and friendship between Niue and New Zealand


Norfolk Island


1:2


1980


Official
(Territory of Australia)


· Green: vegetation
· Pine tree: island's symbol


Northern Mariana Islands


1:2


1976


Official
(Commonwealth in union with USA)


· Blue: Pacific Ocean
· Star: Commonwealth
· Latte stone, head wreath: native Chamorro culture


North Korea


1:2


9 Sept. 1948


National and Civil


· Blue: sovereignty, peace, friendship
· White: purity, strength, dignity
· Red: revolutionary traditions
· Star: socialism


Norway  


8:11


17 July 1821


National and Civil


· Colours: nation's past political unions with Denmark (red and white), Sweden (blue); also influenced by French flag


Oman  


1:2


25 Apr. 1995


National and Civil


· National emblem
· White: Imam of Oman, peace, prosperity
· Red: battles against foreign invaders
· Green: Jebel Akhdar, fertility


Pakistan


2:3


14 Aug. 1947


National


· White strip: non-Muslims, other minority groups
· Star: light, knowledge
· Crescent: progress
· Green: symbol of Islam


Palau  


5:8


1  1981


National and Civil


· Full moon: peace, love, tranquillity, ideal time for celebrations and harvesting
· Blue: freedom, self-rule, ocean


Panama  


2:3


3 Nov. 1903


National and Civil


· Blue: Conservative party
· Red: Liberals party
· White: peace between the two parties
· Blue star: civic virtues of purity and honesty
· Red star: authority, law
(Inspired by US flag)


Papua New Guinea


3:4


24 June 1971


National and Civil


· Five stars: Southern Cross constellation - connection to South Pacific countries; local 'five sisters' legend
· Bird of paradise: emblem of regional tribe culture; emergence as a nation
· Red, black, yellow: traditional colours


Paraguay


1:2


25 Nov. 1842


National and Civil


· Red: bravery, patriotism
· White: integrity, peace
· Blue: liberty, generosity
· National coat of arms (obverse)
· Treasury Seal (reverse)
(Based on French flag)


Peru


2:3


25 Feb. 1825


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Red: blood spilt for independence
· White: peace


Philippines


1:2


19 May 1898


National and Civil


· Sun rays: eight provinces that revolted against Spanish rule
· Stars: nation's three main geographical divisions - Luzon, the Visayas, Mindanao
· White triangle: equality
· Blue: peace, justice, patriotism
· Red: bravery


Pitcairn Islands


1:2


1984


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· island's coat of arms


Poland


5:8


1 Aug. 1919


National


· White: desire for peace
· Red: socialism
(From 13th century Polish arms)


Portugal  


2:3


30 June 1911


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Red: revolution, blood spilt through defending the nation
· Green: explorer King Henry the Navigator; or, hope


Puerto Rico


2:3


1952


Official
(Territory of USA)


· Star: Puerto Rico
· Three sides of triangle: executive, legislative and judicial government areas
· Blue: sky, coastal waters
· Red: blood shed by warriors
· White: liberty, victory, peace


Qatar


11:28


c.1949


National and Civil


· Maroon: blood shed in Qatari wars
· White: peace
· Points on serrated edge: nation as ninth member of the 'reconciled emirates' of  Qatari-British treaty, 1916




······
 



Réunion


2:3
······
3:5


1794
······
 


As France
(Overseas dept of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······


Romania  


2:3


27 Dec. 1989


National and Civil


· Blue: Moldova
· Yellow: Wallachia
· Red: Romanian unity
(Based of French flag)


Russia  


2:3


22 Aug. 1991


National and Civil


· Based on Dutch flag adopted by Peter the Great for merchant ships
· Red: shield of Grand Principality of Moscow
· Blue: cloak of St George
· White: horse of St George
(Originator of the Pan-Slav colours)


Rwanda


1:2


31 Dec. 2001


National and Civil


· Blue: happiness and peace
· Yellow: economic growth, mineral wealth
· Green: future prosperity, natural resources
· Sun: unity, enlightenment, transparency from ignorance


Saint Barthélemy

 


2:3


1877


As France
(Collectivity of France)


[See France]


Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha


1:2


a) 1877
b) 11 May 2013
c) 20 Oct. 2002


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Island's coat of arms


Saint Kitts and Nevis
 


2:3


19 Sept. 1983
 


National and Civil


· Green: fertile land
· Red: struggle from slavery
· Yellow: sunny climate
· Black: African heritage
· Stars: nation's two islands, hope and liberty; or, independence and optimism
 


Saint Lucia
 


1:2
 


1 Mar. 1967


National and Civil


· Blue: sea, sky
· White and black: island's racial composition
· Gold: sunshine, prosperity
· Two larger triangles: the Pitons
 


Saint Martin

 


2:3


1794


As France
(Collectivity of France)


[See France]




······
 



Saint Pierre and Miquelon


2:3
······
2:3


1794
······
 


As France
(Collectivity of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······
· Three heraldic arms: colonists from Basque Country (top), Brittany (middle), Normandy (bottom)
· Blue of main part: Atlantic Ocean
· Ship: the Grande Hermine


Saint Vincent and the Grenadines


2:3


12 Oct. 1985


National and Civil


· Blue: sky, waters
· Yellow: sunshine; or, sands
· Green: vegetation
· Diamonds: 'Gems of the Antilles' islands
· Diamonds' V-shape: Vincent


Samoa  


1:2


1  1962


National and Civil


· Stars: Southern Cross constellation
· Red: courage
· Blue: freedom
· White: purity


San Marino


4:5


6 April 1862


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· White: peace, Mount Titano with clouds
· Blue: liberty, sky


São Tomé and
Príncipe


1:2


5 Nov. 1975


National and Civil


· Red: struggle for independence
· Green: vegetation
· Yellow: cocoa
· Stars: nations two islands
(Pan-African colours)


Saudi Arabia


2:3


15 Mar. 1973


National and Civil


· Green: Islam
· Shahada inscription 'There is no god but God; Muhammad is the prophet of God'
· Sabre: the militancy and their faith


Senegal  


2:3


Sept. 1960


National and Civil


· Star: unity, hope
· Green: Islam, progress, hope
· Yellow: natural wealth, progress
· Red: sacrifice, determination
(Pan-African colours)


Serbia


1:2


5 June 2006


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Red, blue, white: freedom, revolutionary ideals
(Pan-Slav colours)


Seychelles


1:2


8  1996


National and Civil


· Blue: sky, sea
· Yellow: sun giving light and life
· Red: determination to work for the future in unity and love
· White: social justice, harmony
· Green: land, natural environment
· Blue, yellow: Democratic Party
· Red, White, green: Seychelles People's United Party
· Five bands: dynamic new country moving into the future


Sierra Leone


2:3


27 Apr. 1961


National and Civil


· White: unity, justice
· Green: agriculture, mountains, natural resources
· Blue: sea, natural harbour at Freetown


Singapore


2:3


3 Dec. 1959


National and Civil


· Crescent: new nation
· Five stars: peace, democracy, progress, justice, equality
· Red: universal brotherhood, equality
· White: people's purity and virtue


Sint Maarten


2:3


10 Oct. 2010


Official
(Country of Netherlands)


· Country's coat of arm
· Colours from Dutch flag


Slovakia


2:3


1 Sept. 1992


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Pan-Slav colours


Slovenia


1:2


24 June 1991


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Colours: from mediaeval coat of arms of Duchy of Carniola; also Pan-Slav


Solomon Islands


1:2


18 Nov. 1977


National and Civil


· Stars: five main island groups
· Green: land
· Yellow: sunshine


Somalia


2:3


12 Oct. 1954


National and Civil


· Star: unity
· Star's points: five regions of Somalis, Ethiopia, Kenya, Djibouti, former British and Italian colonies
· Blue: sky, Indian Ocean (originally, from UN flag)


South Africa


2:3


27 Apr. 1994


National and Civil


· Y: convergence, unity
· Yellow, black, green: from African National Congress flag
· Red, white, blue: from flags of Boer republics
(Colours have no official symbolism)


South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands


1:2


1985


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· Territory's coat of arms


South Korea


2:3


8 Sept. 1948


National and Civil


· Top left trigram: heaven
· Top right trigram: water
· Button right trigram: earth
· Button left trigram: fire
· Yin-yang: harmony, union of opposites (blue: negative cosmic forces of yin; red: opposite positive forces of yang)
· White: peace and purity


South Sudan


1:2


9 July 2011


National


· Black: the people
· Red: blood shed for freedom
· Green: the land
· Blue: waters of the Nile
· Star: unity of the nation's states


Spain


2:3


19 July 1927


National and Civil


· Red, yellow: related to older kingdoms of Aragon, Castile, Leon, Navarre
· National coat of arms


Sri Lanka


1:2


17 Dec. 1978


National and Civil


· Green: Sri Lankan Moors
· Orange: Sri Lankan Tamils
· Lion: Sinhalese ethnicity, national strength, bravery
· Sword: national sovereignty
· Buddhist bo leaves: kindness, friendliness, happiness, equanimity
· Red: European Burghers, nation's colonial background
· Yellow: other ethnic groups


Sudan


1:2


20 May 1970


National and Civil


· Red: struggle for freedom
· Green: Islam, prosperity, agriculture
· Black: dark, pre-Islamic past; or, the nation
· White: purity, peace, optimism, love, light
(Pan-Arab colours)


Suriname


2:3


25 Nov. 1975


National and Civil


· Red: progress, love
· Green: hope, fertility
· White: peace, justice, freedom
· Star: unity, hope
· Yellow: golden future
(Green and red were: political parties' colours at independence)


Svalbard


8:11


1920


As Norway
(Territory of Norway)


[See Norway]


Swaziland


2:3


30 Oct. 1967


National and Civil


· Blue: peace, stability
· Red: past struggles
· Yellow: mineral resources
· Shield (from Emasotsha Regiment), Assegais spears, staff with Injobo tassels: protection from nation's enemies
· Black and white on shield: blacks and whites living in peace


Sweden


5:8


22 June 1906


National and Civil


· Yellow, blue: from national arms
· Scandinavian Cross: from Danish flag


Switzerland


1:1


12 Dec. 1889


National and Civil


· Based on canton Schwyz flag


Syria


2:3


29 Mar. 1980


National and Civil


· Black: oppression
· Red: bloody struggle
· White: bright future
· Stars: Syria and Egypt
(Band colours from Arab Liberation flag)


Taiwan


2:3


28 Oct. 1928


Official
(Republic of China)


· Sun: progress
· Sunrays: twelve months, twelve traditional Chinese hours (two hours each)
· Blue: liberty, justice, democracy
· Red: fraternity, sacrifice, nationalism; Han Chinese ethnicity
· White: equality, frankness, people's livelihood


Tajikistan


1:2


24 Nov. 1992


National and Civil


· Crown: the people, state sovereignty
· Seven stars: nation's 'magic number' seven
· Red: sun, victory, unity
· White: cotton, purity, mountain snows
· Green: Islam, farm produce


Tanzania


2:3


30 June 1964


National and Civil


· Green: vegetation
· Black: Swahili people
· Yellow: gold deposits
· Blue: lakes, rivers, Indian Ocean
(Colours from flags of Tanganyika and Zanzibar)


Thailand


2:3


28 Sept. 1917


National and Civil


· Red: the nation, life-blood
· Blue: monarchy
· White: purity of Buddhism


Togo


2:3


27 Apr. 1960


National and Civil


· Star: life, peace, dignity, nation's independence; or, star of hope
· Square: people's loyalty and patriotism
· Five bands: nation's regions
· Red: blood shed during independence struggle
· Green: agricultural wealth, hope, fertility
· Yellow: mineral wealth, prosperity through faith and hard work
(Pan-African colours)


Tokelau


1:2


7 Sept. 2009


Official
(Territory of New Zealand)


· Tokelauan canoe: nation moving to the future
· Southern Cross: Christianity's role
· Yellow: happiness, peace
· Blue: ocean


Tonga


1:2


4 Nov. 1875


National and Civil


· Cross: Christianity
· White: purity
· Red: blood of Jesus


Trinidad and Tobago


3:5


31 Aug. 1962


National and Civil


· White: sea, purity, equality
· Red: land's vitality, people's courage and friendliness, sun's warmth and energy
· Black: land's wealth, people's strength and dedication


Tunisia


2:3


1835


National and Civil


· Star and crescent: Islam
· Red: blood shed by martyrs in oppression struggle
· White: peace
(Based on Turkish flag)


Turkey  


2:3


5 June 1936


National and Civil


· Star and crescent: Islam
· Red, white: moon and star reflected in pool of blood of Turkish warriors (according to legend)
(Based on Ottoman flag)


Turkmenistan


2:3


19 Feb. 1997


National and Civil


· Ornamentation: five tribal guls
· Olive branch
· Crescent: Islam
· Stars: five Turkmen regions
· Green: Islam


Turks and Caicos Islands

 


1:2


1968


Official
(Territory of UK)


· Union Flag: British ties
· conch shell, spiny lobster, cactus: elements of island's biota


Tuvalu


1:2


1 Oct. 1978


National and Civil


· Union Flag: British ties
· Stars: nine atolls


Uganda


2:3


9 Oct. 1962


National and Civil


· National crest
· Black: people
· Yellow: sunshine, vitality
· Red: African brotherhood
(Colours from Uganda People's Congress flag)


Ukraine


2:3


4 Sept. 1991


National and Civil


· Blue: sky
· Yellow: grain fields


United Arab Emirates


1:2


2 Dec. 1971


National and Civil


· Green: trees, fertility
· White: neutrality
· Black: petroleum resources
· Red: unity
(Pan-Arab colours)


United Kingdom


1:2


1  1801


National and Civil


· Red cross: St George's cross, patron saint of England
· Red saltire: St Patrick's cross, patron saint of Ireland
· White saltire on blue field: St Andrew's cross, patron saint of Scotland
· White fimbriations on St George's cross and St Andrew's saltire added to adhere to heraldic rules of tincture


United States of America


10:19


4 July 1960


National and Civil


· Blue: loyalty, devotion, truth, justice, friendship
· Red: courage, zeal, fervency
· White:  purity, rectitude of conduct
· Stars: fifty states
· Stripes: original 13 original colonies


United States Pacific Island Wildlife Refuges


10:19


1935


As USA
(Territory of USA)


[See USA]


Uruguay


2:3


11 July 1830


National and Civil


· Sun of May: appeared during 25 May 1810 independence declaration
· Stripes: nine original departments
(Based of Argentinian flag)


Uzbekistan


1:2


18 Nov. 1991


National and Civil


· Crescent: new republic, Islam
· Twelve stars: months and stars of Uzbek calendar
· Blue: sky, water, Turkic people's colour
· White: peace, purity
· Green: nature, fertility, Islam
· Red: life-force of living organisms


Vanuatu


3:5


18 Feb. 1980


National and Civil


· Boar's tusk: prosperity
· Fern leaves: peace
· Fern leaf fronds: 39 members of legislative assembly
· Red: blood of boars and men
· Green: islands' richness
· Black: ni-Vanuatu people
· Yellow: sunshine
· Y-shape: archipelago's pattern, Gospel's light spreading through islands


Vatican


1:1


7 June 1979


Civil


· Holy See's arms
· Gold: Pope's spiritual power
· White: Pope's worldly power


Venezuela


2:3


10 Mar. 2006


National and Civil


· National coat of arms
· Stars: eight provinces supporting independence
· Red: blood shed for independence
· Blue: people's courage, independence from Spain
· Yellow: land's richness
(Original colours of Gran Colombia flag)


Vietnam


2:3


30 Nov. 1955


National and Civil


· Five-pointed star: groups united for building socialism (peasants, workers, intellectuals, traders, soldiers)
· Red: bloodshed, revolution


Virgin Islands


2:3


1921


Official
(Territory of USA)


· White: purity
· Modified US seal
· Islands' initials
· Arrows: three main islands


Wake Island


10:19


1899


As USA
(Territory of USA)


[See USA]




······




Wallis and Futuna


2:3
······
2:3


1888
······


As France
(Territory of France)
······
Unofficial


[See France]
······
· French flag: French ties
· Four triangles: three native kings, one French administrator


Yemen


2:3


22 May 1990


National and Civil


· Black: oppression
· Red: bloody struggle
· White: bright future
(Colours from Arab Liberation flag)


Zambia


2:3


24 Oct. 1964


National and Civil


· Green: natural resources, vegetation
· Orange: mineral wealth
· Black: native people
· Red: struggle for independence
· Eagle: ability to rise above problems


Zimbabwe


1:2


18 Apr. 1980


National and Civil


· National bird: nation's history
· Star: peace
· Green: agriculture
· Yellow: mineral wealth
· Red: blood shed for independence
· Black: native people
(Green, yellow, black, red - Pan-African colours and of Zimbabwe African People's Union)



Sources

Ascension Island, 2013. First Ever Ascension Flag to fly. [http://www.ascension-island.gov.ac/first-ever-ascension-flag-to-fly/]

Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2007. Washington D.C.: Potomac Books, 2007.

Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 2013. New York : Skyhorse Pub., 2013.

Complete Flags of the World, rev. 5th edn. London, etc.: Dorling Kindersley Ltd, 2008.

Crampton, W. G. Observer Flags. London: Bloomsbury, 1992.

Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2012.

Malkin, B. New Caledonia adopts second flag in compromise over French rule. The Telegraph. 20 July 2010. [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/australiaandthepacific/newcaledonia/7900494/New-Caledonia-adopts-second-flag-in-compromise-over-French-rule.html]

Pederson, R. N. One Europe: 100 Nations. Clevedon, Avon, England: Channel View Books, 1992.

Radio New Zealand International, 2009. Tokelau leaders presented with their new flag in Wellington. [http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=48945]

R.A.P., 2010. Le Conseil général adopte le drapeau guyanais. Portail de la ville de Saint-Laurent du Maroni. [http://www.97320.com/Le-Conseil-general-adopte-le-drapeau-guyanais_a3504.html]

The Tristan da Cunha Website, 2005. The Flag of Tristan da Cunha. [http://www.tristandc.com/government.php]


 

 




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